考據學風下的義理傳統:清中葉經學與漢宋調和研究

Neo-Confucian Philosophy under Philology Movement: The Compromise of Confucian Classics Studies in Mid-Qing Dynasty

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Awarding Institution
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Pang Fei KWOK (Supervisor)
Award date10 Aug 2020

Abstract

清代學術史、經學史的書寫傳統往往強調「漢宋之爭」及漢學、考據學對宋明理學的衝擊。考據學與傳統經學之間似乎只構成新、舊學術的對立關係,漢學獨盛也早已成為清中葉學術表現的「刻板印象」。雖然清初以降傳統義理不可避免地接受著考據學帶來的挑戰,但是傳統義理做出的回應卻不全是消極的對抗和抵觸。在考據學流行之初,學者已然開始尋求化解兩者間緊張和矛盾的途徑。本文立足於清中葉經學內部考據與傳統義理的互動,嘗試跳出以往清代經學史研究只強調「漢宋之爭」的舊轍,考察經學詮釋中宋學傳統義理的表現。分別從代表官方聲音的《四庫全書總目·經部》,戴震新義理學說遭遇的質難和抵制,清儒對偽《古文尚書》義理和廢立的態度,《大學》的重新詮釋,以及禮學考辨中的制度與禮義五方面展開論述。從中發現,考據學發展到極致的乾嘉時期,眾多學者仍舊尊信宋儒義理,從文獻詮釋的角度為傳統義理學說尋求支撐。即使考據經義與傳統經義嚴重牴牾的情況下,也可通過詮釋的方法彌縫分歧、自圓其説;或結合倫理道德和經世現實的考慮予以調和。放在學術史的發展脈絡中審視,考據學給經學的發展軌迹帶來了諸多變數,其中一個方向即是傳統義理學說在接受新解經方法挑戰的同時,與考據學通過調和實現重整。「漢宋調和論」雖然是在嘉道以降成為流行的學術話語,但考據學與傳統義理的重整過程,卻是伴隨著清初以至乾嘉時期考據學的不斷發展一直進行著。
The works of the history of academic and Confucian classics studies in Qing Dynasty tend to focus on the debate between Han and Song studies and the impacts of the Han studies and the textual criticism on the Neo-Confucian philosophy. The textual criticism and traditional Confucian philosophy seem to oppose each other, being the new and old school of Confucian studies respectively. It seems to be a stereotype that the Han studies outshined other Confucian philosophies in the mid-Qing Dynasty. Since the beginning of Qing Dynasty, traditional Confucian philosophy had been inevitably challenged by the textual criticism. However, its response was more than just negative confrontations or resistance. When the textual criticism began to rise, scholars had been trying to tackle the contradiction and tension between the two. Based on the interaction between the textual criticism and the traditional Confucian philosophy, instead of focusing on the debate between Han and Song studies, this article emphasizes on how the Song studies explain the Confucianism. By studying the Confucian Classic of Siku Quanshu which represented the stance of the authority, the questions and confrontation to Dai Zhen’s Neo-Confucian philosophy, Qing scholars’ attitudes towards the forged old text chapters of The Book of Documents and their controversy, the re-explanation of The Great Learning, and the system and righteousness in the Ritual study, this article can come to a conclusion that even in the prime of the textual criticism, which was during the reign of Emperor Qianlong and Emperor Jiaqing, many scholars still upheld Song studies and found support for traditional Confucian philosophy from the perspective of literature interpretation. Even though the textual criticism and the traditional Confucian philosophy contradicted each other, the two could still compromise, since they had common ground on the ethics, morals, past experience and reality. If viewing from the perspective of academic progress, it can be found that the textual criticism had brought many variables to the development of Confucian philosophy, including the re-integration of the two after confrontations and compromises. Since the Jiaqing and Daoguang period, the compromise between Han and Song studies had become a prevalent term. However, the re-integration of the textual criticism and the traditional Confucian philosophy had been going on along with the development of the former from the beginning of Qing Dynasty to the Qianlong and Jiaqing period.