重塑民國—章太炎反集權思想研究

Rebuilding the Republic of China – A Study of Zhang Binglin's Anti- Dictatorship Thought

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date8 Sep 2022

Abstract

作為國學大師的章太炎一直從事傳統學術的研究和講授,但他作為革命家,反集權的公共政治參與是其1920年代生平的重要組成部分,若今時今日的章太炎研究僅僅呈現其學術思想的面向,而忽略其反集權的生平,則與1920年代激烈變化的中國社會以及章太炎的完整形象敘述,會有所偏頗和缺失。近百年來的中國社會樣貌——不論是元首集中權力、執政黨主導政權還是中央集權,其雛形都一脈相承於1920年代的國民革命。從事近現代史研究,斷不能忽略這一波瀾壯闊的歷史變局。本文的研究對象,便是立足歷史發展和社會變化去進行章太炎研究,突出章太炎在「集權革命」浪潮下,如何以反集權的動因保持對「自由」、「民權」的信仰和堅持,展開對元首集權、政黨集權和中央集權的批判。

本文立足文獻爬梳和比較,歸納和總結出章太炎反集權政治思想的主線及內涵。同時,以章太炎為中心,對與國民革命歷史相關的人物例如孫中山、毛澤東等人的生平著述進行一定鋪排呈現,並與章太炎進行比較,從而歸納章太炎反集權思想的若干特質。在二十世紀中國革命大潮的洗禮之下,民主成為革命的工具,成為塑造新型民族國家共同體的手段,這更加使得在中國建立真正意義上的民主政治難有成效。在政治集權的作用下,個人自由被共同體所犧牲,且這一共同體亦以強烈的民族情感來強化國家的整體架構,導致個體價值被忽視。雖然章太炎認為在中華民國的時代要應當放棄不合乎共和精神的中國傳統,但這一目標要實現則非常之難。因為在內憂外患的時局下,連「民主」這一概念本身也開始與民族國家的共同體意識相結合。這一變化導致了章太炎等傳統精英反集權的失敗。但無論成敗與否,章太炎的反集權思想不僅是對中華民國開國後政治的反思、描繪了他心目中良善政治的理想國藍圖,更是對中國歷史的一種深刻論斷和反省,具有非凡的時代洞察力。
Zhang Binglin, as a master of Chinese studies, has been engaged in the study and teaching of traditional scholarship, but his anti-dictatorship public political participation as a revolutionary was an important part of his life in the 1920s. If today's study of Zhang Binglin presents only his academic thoughts and ignores his anti-dictatorship life experience, it will be biased and lacking in relation to the fiercely changing Chinese society of the 1920s and in the completeness of Zhang Binglin's image. The shape of Chinese society over the past century -- whether it be dictatorship of the head of state, the one-party state, and the centralization of authority -- has its roots in the Nationalist Revolution of the 1920s. In modern Chinese history, this drastic historical change cannot be ignored. The object of the research is to conduct a study of Zhang Binglin based on historical development and social changes. It sheds lights on how Zhang Binglin maintained his belief and persistence in "Freedom" and "Civil Rights" with anti-dictatorship motives under the wave of the "Centralized power Revolution"; and how he launched a critique of the phenomenon of dictatorship of the head of state, the one-party state, and the centralization of authority.

This research summarizes and concludes the main lines and connotations of Zhang Binglin's anti-dictatorship political thought based on literature reviews. Meanwhile it centers Zhang Binglin and compares his thoughts with other political leaders related to the Nationalist Revolution such as Sun Yat-Sen and Mao Zedong so as to summarize certain characteristics of Zhang Binglin's anti-dictatorship thought. In the China's revolutions in the 20th century, democracy had become a tool of revolution and as means to build up a new nation-state community, which made it even more difficult to shape democratic politics in the true sense of the word in China. Individual freedom and value were sacrificed because of the purpose of political centralization and nation-state community. This community also strengthened the overall structure of the nation with strong national sentiments, which led to the neglect of individual value. Zhang Binglin believed that in the era of the Republic of China, it was necessary to abandon some old Chinese tradition which went against the republican spirit. Zhang Binglin's belief, however, failed because of domestic trouble and foreign invasion during that time. And the concept of "Democracy" began to be combined with consciousness of nation-state community. This change also led to the failure of traditional elites such as Zhang Binglin to fight against dictatorship. No matter success or failure, Zhang Binglin's anti-dictatorship thought was not only a reflection on the politics after the birth of the Republic of China, but also a blueprint of an ideal nation in his mind. His insightful political participation in the 1920s showcased profound judgments and opinions on modern Chinese history.