員工核心自我評價對工作績效的影響機理研究

The Mechanism of Employees' Core Self-evaluation and Work Performance

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date27 Jun 2017

Abstract

隨著第四次工業革命的到來,企業所面臨的外部環境變得日益錯綜複雜,僅僅依靠高層管理者難以實現組織的發展柔性和創新性。通過基層員工提供的相關資訊,豐富自身的決策資訊庫,彌補認知上的缺陷,促進管理者對外部環境做出更恰當的回應,是企業在激烈的競爭中能夠保持動態競爭優勢、實現可持續發展的重要途徑和保障。因此,哪些因素能夠促進企業員工的建言行為,以及這些建言行為會帶來什麼樣的影響成為企業經營者關心的重要管理實踐問題。

與此同時,作為個體對自己能力和價值所持有的最基本的評價和估計,核心自我評價被認為是驅動個體建言行為的重要因素。本文運用期望理論,著重關注建言行為在核心自我評價和工作績效之間的仲介作用,並探究組織政治知覺和員工政治技能在這一作用過程中的權變影響。基於詳實的文獻回顧以及對研究假設的檢驗,本文主要得到如下結論:

1. 員工的核心自我評價與員工促進性建言正相關。員工的組織政治知覺和政治技能在這一過程中起到調節作用。具體而言,員工的組織政治知覺負向調節員工的核心自我評價和促進性建言之間的關係;員工的政治技能正向調節員工的核心自我評價和促進性建言之間的關係;員工的組織政治知覺和政治技能共同對核心自我評價和促進性建言之間的關係起到了三維調節作用。

2. 員工的核心自我評價與抑制性建言正相關。員工的政治技能正向調節員工的核心自我評價和抑制性建言之間的關係。有意思的是,員工的組織政治知覺在核心自我評價和抑制性建言之間的調節作用沒有得到證實。相比起促進性建言更為積極的建議,由於抑制性建言更多關注的是如何預防和及時阻止組織偏離正常軌道的問題,故更多以消極的話語呈現。本文的研究結論表明,基於抑制性建言具有更高的風險性,不論他們是否感知到組織中存在政治行為,個體對自己價值和能力的判斷仍然會驅動他們進行這種建言。

3. 員工的促進性建言積極影響了員工的工作績效。然而,與本文的預期相反,其抑制性建言對於其工作績效起到了消極的影響作用。這一研究結論可能與中國的傳統文化相一致。由於本文採用的是主管打分的方式來對員工的工作績效進行測評,中國傳統文化強調群體的和諧與領導的權威,期望員工能夠服從領導的安排,員工大膽地提出工作中存在的問題往往可能會被認為是挑戰公司領導者的權威,反而不利於個體獲得更高水準的績效評價。

4. 本文發現了員工核心自我評價對工作績效影響的雙刃劍效應。通過拔靴法(Bootstrap)方法檢驗促進性建言和抑制性建言的多重仲介效應,本研究發現員工的核心自我評價通過促進性建言積極影響主管的績效評價,而員工的核心自我評價也可能通過抑制性建言消極影響主管的績效評價。促進性建言在核心自我評價和主管績效評價之間的獨特仲介效應強於抑制性建言在其中的仲介效應。
With the advent of the fourth industrial revolution and the resultant environmental complexity, relying solely on senior management is difficult to achieve the development of organizational flexibility and innovation. Encouraging employees to provide relevant information is of vital importance for managers to enrich their own decision-making information pool, to make up for cognitive deficiencies, and further make a more appropriate response to the external environment. It is also the key for enterprises which are in the fierce competition to maintain a dynamic competitive advantage and guarantee sustainable development. Therefore, exploring the factors which can promote employees’ voice behavior, as well as the impact that these actions would bring become an important practical concern for management.

Other things being equal, employee core self-evaluation, the most basic evaluation and estimation of individual's ability and value, is proposed to be one important factor that drives employee voice behavior. Drawing on expectancy theory, this dissertation explores the mediating role of employee voice behavior that connects employee core self-evaluation and employee performance, and also the influence of the perceived organizational politics and employee political skills that may moderate the aforementioned main effects. Based on a comprehensive literature review and the tests of a group of research hypotheses thereby developed, this dissertation comes up with the following findings and conclusions:

1. Employees core self-evaluation is positively related to employee promotive voice behavior. Employees’ perceptions of organizational politics and their political skills play moderating roles in strengthening or weakening the proposed link between core self-evaluation and promotive voice behavior. Specifically, employees’ perception of organizational politics negatively moderates the relationship between core self-evaluation and promotive voice behavior; their political skill positively moderates the relationship between core self-evaluation and promotive voice behavior; employees’ perception of organizational politics and their political skills together exert a compounded moderating effect on the relationship between core self-evaluation and promotive voice behavior.

2. Employee core self-evaluation is positively related to employee prohibitive voice behavior. Employees’ political skill positively moderates the relationship between core self-evaluation and prohibitive voice behavior. Interestingly, the moderating effect of employees’ perception of organizational politics on the relationship between core self-evaluation and prohibitive voice behavior was not supported. In contrast to promotive voice which is more about the positive suggestions, prohibitive voice focuses on how to prevent the organization from deviating from the right track, usually presented with negative words. This finding implies that given the perceived risk involved in prohibitive voice, employees’ self-evaluation of their value may still drive their voice behavior, regardless of the perceived political risks in the organization.

3. Employee promotive voice positively influences employee job performance. However, contrary to our expectation, prohibitive voice is found to negatively influences job performance rating. This finding may be consistent with the traditional Chinese culture. Because Chinese culture emphasizes the harmony and leadership of the group's authority, supervisors expect employees to obey the arrangements. As a result, employees’ prohibitive voice may be seen as the challenge to the authority of supervisors, thus was not conducive to achieve a high job performance rating.

4. The dissertation discovers the double-edged sword effect of core self-evaluation on the job performance. Using bootstrap method to test the multiple mediating effects of promotive voice and prohibitive voice, the study finds that employee core self-evaluation positively influence job performance rating through promotive voice, but negatively influence job performance rating through prohibitive voice. The mediating effect of promotive voice on the relationship between core self-evaluation and job performance rating is stronger than that of prohibitive voice.

    Research areas

  • Core self-evaluation, voice behavior, perception of organizational politics, political skills