"將"來,將來?外聘明星員工對團隊績效的影響作用

Will the Arrival of Stars Lead to a Brighter Future? The Influence of Externally Hired Stars on Team Performance

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

View graph of relations

Author(s)

Related Research Unit(s)

Detail(s)

Awarding Institution
Supervisors/Advisors
Award date7 Feb 2022

Abstract

隨著我國遊戲產業迅速興起,遊戲行業正在經歷著“人才饑荒”。在經歷了2018 年的“遊戲寒冬”之後,伴隨著經濟和市場的復蘇與發展,用戶數量急劇增加,用戶對於遊戲創新的要求也不斷提高,這導致遊戲企業對人才的需求激增。而學界對“將”的關注與重視也與日俱增。“將”,即明星員工,他們往往具有超高的績效表現和聲譽,是組織中的中堅力量和重要的人力資源,他們的加入、存在以及離開對於組織的生產力乃至興衰至關重要,有“將”,才能有“將來”。

明星員工的加入對團隊績效的影響是學界關注的焦點問題之一。儘管明星員工在其工作團隊通常都具有突出的績效表現,但是在進入新的工作環境后是否能複刻其優異的績效表現仍然存疑,甚至已有的許多研究表明外部雇傭明星員工的績效具有“可移植性悖論”,即明星員工加入新團隊後無論是對個人績效還是對新團隊的影響都具有直接或間接的負面作用。儘管明星員工在組織中發揮了重要作用,他們績效“可移植性悖論”背後的機制仍未得到充分探索,而這在新興的遊戲行業中尤為明顯。因此,本文從匹配的理論視角出發,探索外聘明星員工對其加入團隊績效的影響機制,即在何種條件下外聘明星員工能夠促進團隊績效的發展。

從匹配的視角來看,外聘明星員工能否在新的工作場所複刻其在原工作單位的優異表現,並在新工作環境中不斷提升自我,取決於他們與新工作環境的整體匹配質量。雙方的兼容性和互補性匹配對團隊中外聘明星的績效表現有重大影響,任何維度的低匹配水準都可能導致整體匹配質量下降。基於這一邏輯,相較於驗證各個匹配因素的單一影響效應,本研究轉而探討外聘明星員工多層次、多維度的匹配對團隊績效的三向交互調節作用。本文採用定量分析與定性分析相結合的混合研究方法,考察了個人與組織文化的契合度、團隊成員能力、團隊任期多樣性和團隊任務特性等因素對外聘明星員工與團隊績效之間關係的交互調節作用,而不僅僅是著眼於個人與組織的契合度或個人與團隊的匹配。因此,匹配可以被視為外聘明星員工為其雇傭組織創造價值的綜合機制。這種多層次和多維度的整合可以使我們更加透徹地瞭解外聘明星員工通過匹配這一過程對其雇傭組織的績效做出貢獻的機制。本研究的實證背景是遊戲行業,這是一個新興而尚未充分被探索的行業。本文收集並整理了中國某知名互聯網公司在2020年上、下半年共兩個時間段的遊戲團隊樣本並進行了定量數據分析,以驗證研究假設。同時,本研究還基於深度訪談、媒體新聞、公司數據等質性數據進行了定性的案例分析,在進一步驗證定量分析結論準確性的同時,進一步深化和拓展定量分析中的理論發現。

本研究具有理論和實踐意義。理論上,本研究從匹配的理論視角出發,探索外聘明星員工與企業、團隊、同事等多維度、多層次因素的匹配對團隊績效的作用機制,強調匹配的複雜性以及整體匹配質量對明星員工乃至團隊的影響。這在一定程度上打開了績效“可移動悖論”的黑箱,回應了以往研究探究明星員工對團隊影響邊界條件的號召。本研究同時也豐富了匹配視角的相關文獻,揭示了匹配的複雜性及其對明星員工融入新團隊和績效表現的動態影響作用。實踐上,本研究聚焦遊戲行業,是對該領域戰略人力資源管理進行的全新探索。此外,本研究闡釋了多元素交互匹配對明星員工與其團隊績效關係的調節作用,為人力資源管理者優化團隊人力資源配置提供了新的思路。
With the rapid growing number of game players, game industry emerges and develops quickly both at home and abroad, followed by a "talent famine" in such context. Especially after the "winter" of game industry in 2018, the demand of game enterprises for talents continues to grow, accompanied by the development of economy and improving requirements of the users on game innovation. In this case, only with talents, or in other words, with those top performers, could the firms survive and win the competition in the same industry. Top performers and talents, which are deemed as "stars", usually are important human resources and the backbone of the organization owing to their exceptional performance, status, and social capitals. Their joining in, existence, and departure are critical to the productivity and even the rise and fall of the focal organizations.

One of the focuses by both academia and industry is the impact of star employees on team performance. In spite of the disproportionate performance that they display in prior workplace, it is still unclear whether such performance could be portable to and sustained in the new work environment. Rather, while stressing the importance of star employees to the hiring team, existing literature has indicated the directly or indirectly negative effect of hiring star employees externally on performance of new team, either in long term or in short term. Nevertheless, the mechanism behind "portability paradox" of stars' performance to new hiring organization remains underexplored despite the important role played by star employees, especially in the emerging game industry. On the basis of this question, a matching perspective is applied to explore the mechanism in which externally hired stars might improve team performance.

From the matching perspective, whether the externally hired stars could replicate and improve their performance in the new workplace depends on the overall match quality with the working environment they are embedded in. The complementary and supplementary matching of both parties exerts great influence on the outcomes of having externally hired star in the team. As a result, the performance of external hires might suffer if they have poor match with any level or dimension of factors in the new organizations. Based on this logic, this thesis explores the three-way interactive effect of multilevel and multidimensional matching factors of externally hired stars on team performance, rather than testifying the single influential effect of each match factors. The interactive moderating roles of person-culture fit, team member competency, team tenure diversity, and team task nature on the relationship between externally hired stars and team performance are examined instead of merely looking at the effect of person- organization fit or person-team fit. In this case, matching is viewed as a comprehensive mechanism of value creation for the hiring organization. Such integration of multiple levels and dimensions enables a more thorough understanding of the mechanism in which externally hired stars might contribute to performance of their hiring organizations through matching. The mixed method approach, which combines quantitative and qualitative analysis methods, is applied in this research. The context of this study is set in game industry, which is emerging yet underexplored. To test the hypotheses, sample of game teams in one well-known Internet firm of China in two periods of 2020 are constructed and analyzed quantitatively. In addition, this thesis also collects more qualitative materials via interviews, media, company website and alike and conduct a multiple-case analysis. Such mix of quantitative and qualitative analyzing methods further enhances the validity of results while allowing further deepening and extending the theoretical findings.

In general, this research makes several contributions. Theoretically, this study explores the mechanism through which external star employees exert influence on team performance via matching with multi-dimensional factors spanning in organization-, team-, and individual-level. It to some extent opens the black box of "portability paradox" of performance, answering the call of prior studies to explore the contingencies of externally hired stars' impact on the team. In addition, this study enriches the relevant literature of matching perspective by revealing the dynamic influence of matching complexity on the integration of external hires into new workplace as well as their performance. It emphasizes the complexity nature of matching and the importance of matching quality to the external hires and even to the hiring teams. For those star employees hired externally, failure to match with factors of specific dimensions might result in undermining effectiveness, productivity, and even increasing likelihood of leaving. Practically, this research sheds light on game industry, which is a new exploration in the field of strategic human resource management. It also explains the effect of multi-element interactive matching on the relationship between star employees and their team performance, providing new insights for managers to optimize the structure and leveraging of team human resources.

    Research areas

  • Star employees, cultural match, staff ability, hired, leadership