簡朝亮≪尚書集注述疏≫中的政治思想

On the Political Thoughts of Jian Chaoliang's Shangshu Jizhu Shushu

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date19 Sep 2022

Abstract

本論文以清末民初廣東大儒簡朝亮(1852-1933)《尚書集注述疏》的政治思想為研究重心,探討簡氏的學行研思及其理想的為政之道,藉此觀察清末民初廣東一地的經學思潮,如何的去舊迎新,步向現代。全文共分七章:第一章回顧有關簡氏的研究概況和略述本文的架構,陳述時賢研究簡氏的觀點,並指出缺失所在,俾使擴濶簡學的研究天地與學術視野。第二章縷述簡氏的生平事蹟與其著述之大要,彰顯簡氏一生的高潔言行,以期讀者對簡氏的生平和著述有通盤認識。第三章詳述《尚書集注述疏》的內容綱要、撰作背景與原由、撰作經過、書名釋要、各卷體要和得失評論。全章以《尚書集注述疏》一書的內容和撰作過程為討論中心,尤其指出書中各卷要旨,以及中心要義。此外,有關是書的注經得失與優劣,亦在本章的論述之列。第四章探討簡氏心中所繫的上古治世,剖析其理想之君道與臣道。第五章詳細討論簡氏身處清末民初古今中西思潮的波瀾之中,提出「三民主義」(民主、民權和民碞)和〈洪範・九疇〉的政治義蘊,以此建構一個溝通自然和現實世界,旁及政治、社會、經濟、軍事、教育、司法和對外關係等的言政系統,體現完備的施政規劃。第六章從簡氏的性理學和對西方觀感兩方面的角度,分析簡氏對傳統內聖外王的諸種看法,從而審視簡氏的學術地位。第七章為全文結論,除總覽簡氏在學術、傳經和育才等方面的突出貢獻外,還寫其以《尚書》精神應對晚清時局的情志,反映一代儒者的胸襟。
This thesis examines the political thoughts of Jian Chaoliang (1852-1933), an eminent Guangdong Confucian scholar in the late Qing and early Republican period of China, as reflected in his Shangshu Jizhu Shushu. Through the exploration of his learning and deeds as well as his ideal approach to politics, this thesis aims to examine the development of the Confucian canon studies in the late Qing and Republican era, with focus on its transition from tradition to modernity.

The thesis consists of seven chapters. Chapter One reviews the literature on Jian and outlines the structure of the thesis, analyzing the similarities and differences in the study of Jian by contemporary scholars and highlighting the shortcomings of their arguments, with the purpose of expanding the scope of scholarship and research in this domain. Chapter Two gives a detailed account of Jian's life and an overview of his writings, highlighting his lifelong words and deeds, with a view to offering readers a comprehensive understanding of Jian's life and writings. Chapter Three outlines the content of the Shangshu Jizhu Shushu, and discusses the background and reasons for its debut, the chronology of its composition, the meaning of its title, the gist of each volume, as well as the merits and demerits of its arguments. Throughout the chapter are discussions about the process of the book's composition and its content, with a particular focus on the key arguments of each of its volumes, its central themes, and the merits and demerits of its exegesis on the Confucian canon.

Chapter Four explores the ancient world of governance that Jian had in mind, and analyzes what constitutes his ideal way of the ruler and that of ministers. Chapter Five discusses in detail how, during the vicissitudes of changes brought about by the intertwinement between Chinese and Western thoughts in the late Qing and early Republican China, Jian uncovered strands of political meaning from the "Three Principles of the People" (democracy, people's rights and people's gossiping) and the "Nine Sections" of the "Hongfan" chapter of Shangshu, and how he rode on this to create a comprehensive system of governance which connects with nature and the real world, and which spans across politics, society, economy, military affairs, education, justice and external relations.

Chapter Six analyzes Jian's views on the Confucian concept of the "inner sage and the outer king" from the perspective of his version of Neo-Confucianism and from his perception of the West, with a view to assessing his academic status. Chapter Seven, being the concluding chapter, provides an overview of Jian's outstanding contributions to academic scholarship, the transmission of the Confucian canon, and the grooming of talent. This chapter also describes his response to conditions in the late Qing Dynasty in the spirit of the Shangshu, highlighting the broad-mindedness of such a great Confucian scholar.