領導風格與追隨力和組織承諾之間關係的實證研究 : 以進軍中國的韓資企業為樣本
The research on the relationship between leadership style, followship and organizational commitment : focus on the Korean enterprises in China
Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis
Related Research Unit(s)
從中韓建交23年以來的成績表來看：兩國貿易額達到2700億美元,實現了7%高速成長，每年投資額達到30億美元，91航空路線每週達到741回，人力交流每年達到800萬名--這說明兩國已經成為了離不開彼此,相互依賴的鄰國關係。不過於此同時，我們也需要回顧這些年來中韓建交其品質是否也同步發展，以及在兩國文化方面我們克服了多少差異。最近韓國三星電子在西安投資70億美元建立半導體製造工廠並今年開始投產,此舉受到了中韓許多人的關注。77年的三星公司文化以及其世界一流的技術如何融合於中國本土，並如何實現中韓兩國的雙贏發展，離不開適合於中國本土的領導以及具有特色的領導力。 在中國，對領導和組織行為的研究比其他國家或地區起步較晚，對於進軍中國的外資企業的領導力以及人力資源進行的研究和關於追隨力的研究則更少，而且在領導力和追隨力之間的關係中，把心理授權作為仲介變數的研究還沒出現。在這樣的背景下，本論文的研究目的是分析進軍中國的外資企業的領導風格及組織承諾和追隨力之間的關係，並通過心理授權的作用，對學術界和實務界提供一定的參考。 本論文採用實證研究的方法，根據文獻綜述提出假設並建立理論模型，在中國發放500份問卷，其中包括三星等主要在上海華東地區進行投資的製造業大型集團為樣本。調查後用回歸分析，聚焦於進軍中國的韓資企業的領導風格與組織承諾和追隨力之間的關係、以及心理授權的仲介作用，對文中假設進行驗證。主要研究結論如下： 第一,交易型領導對心理授權有正向影響，且其影響程度也很大。這一結果跟其他國家不太一樣。變革型領導與服務型領導對心理授權有正向影響。第二,交易型領導、變革型領導與服務型領導對組織承諾有正向影響。韓國的以往研究表明，交易型領導對組織承諾的影響程度不高（參考文獻），有些研究表明交易型領導對組織承諾沒有影響（參考文獻）。第三，交易型領導、變革型領導與服務型領導對追隨力有正相關影響。第四，在領導力（交易型領導、變革型領導與服務型領導）和組織承諾之間關係中，心理授權起著仲介作用。第五，在領導力（交易型領導、變革型領導與服務型領導）和追隨力之間關係中，心理授權沒有起著仲介作用，具有不同的過程機制。 本研究集中以韓資企業為樣本來分析當今的中國和外資企業的問題，若加以補充並檢驗西方已有的研究，更好地發展領導力和組織行為理論，將會對中國和外資企業今後如何獲取競爭優勢、並利用和培養自身的人力資源能夠提供建設性的解決方案。本研究旨在能為那些在中國的外資企業經營體制改革做一定的理論與實踐上的貢獻，並能夠提出對學術界和企業界具有參考價值的建議。 Sino-Korea has diplomatic ties for 23 years since 1992. The two great countries have obtained remarkable accomplishments in economic and trade cooperation. Bilateral trade reached US$ 270 billion with 7% growth rate in a high speed,- annual investment reached 3 billion dollars, 91 air routes come to 741 times weekly, exchanging manpower 8 million annually. It shows that two nations are mutually dependent and concrete. We also need to review these years, its quality is also synchronized development between the China and South Korea diplomatic relations, as well as in the two countries culture we overcame many differences. Recently Samsung Electronics invested US$ 7 billion to build semiconductor plants in Xian. It will be ready to operate with world utmost investment volume in this year which has caused many people’s attention both in China and Korea. To graft 77 years experiences in techniques and know-how of Samsung into China and to achieved win-win needs Sino-Korea leaders learn and developed local and distinctive leadership which are suitable for Chinese culture and China's national conditions. The research on leadership and organizational behavior in China started later than other countries or areas. It is seldom to find out the research on leadership, human resources and followership of foreign-invested enterprises. Moreover in the relationship between the leadership and followership, research that introduced psychological empowerment and treated it as mediate variable has not appeared. Under this context, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the relationship between leadership style, and organizational behavior or followership, especially the intermediation role of psychological empowerment between those relationships in Korean- invested enterprises in China, which would provide academic support and practical references in how to do business. Empirical research methods are used in this paper. Based on literature review, hypothesis has been put forwarded, and theory model has been established. 500 questionnaires issued in more than 50 manufacturing invested in East China areas including Samsung, banks, airlines, retails and trading companies to verify the hypothesis through regression analysis. The study focus on the relationship between leadership style, and organizational behavior or followership, especially the intermediation role of psychologicalempowerment between those relationships in Korean- invested enterprises in China. Main conclusions are as follows: Firstly, transactional leadership has positive effect on psychological empowerment with enormous influence. The result shows different among different countries. Transformational leadership and servant leadership have positive effect on psychological empowerment too. Secondly, transactional leadership, transformational leadership and servant leadership have positive influence on organizational commitment. Korea’s previous studies showed that transactional leadership has tiny influence on organizational commitmentor has no effect at all. Thirdly, transactional leadership, transformational leadership and servant leadership have positive effect on followership. Fourthly, psychological empowerment mediates the relationship between leadership styles (transactional, transformational and servant leadership) and organizational commitment. Fifthly, psychological empowerment does not mediate the relationship between leadership styles (transactional, transformational and servant leadership) and followership. This research analyses problems in foreign funded enterprises and Chinese companies via samples of Korean-owned companies. This research could complement and verify western existing research results, further develop leadership and organizational behavior theory, provide constructive solutions for foreign-funded enterprises in China to gain competitive advantage, use and develop its own human resources. This study aims to make a certain contribution on the theory and practice in helping foreign capital enterprise management system reform in China, and to put forward reference and suggestions to academia and the business.
- Leadership, Followership, Corporations, Korean, Organizational commitment, China