造神:漢唐之間的人神與國家權威

Spiritual Concoctions: Human Spirits and Their Relationship to State Authority in Early Medieval China (220-581 AD)

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date4 Aug 2022

Abstract

對三國兩晉南北朝人神崇拜的討論,多屬通論性研究;當涉及具體神靈時,更只關注對後世有巨大影響的神靈。本文通過回顧學者對這一時期影響最大的神祇蔣神的研究,以歷史文獻分析方法,發現國家權威、巫者、佛、道四種力量對神靈形成有着巨大作用。本文分析近一百位漢唐之間的人神,認為絕大部分人神的形成在於有功於人民,特別是身處邊郡或夷夏混居之地。本文從三組個案探討人神崇拜形成及其與國家權威的關係:一,以鄧艾為例,從國家和民間兩個視角討論了不同時期,鄧艾或成為厲神,或作為先賢的造神過程。二,以似並無功於民、卻在道教神譜中超凡入神的早期道教人物左慈與奉道世家孔氏之孔愉為例,將之置於五世紀道教成立的歷史脈絡下討論人神的形成。三,以橫死的悍將得不到祭祀而作祟的蘇峻、苻堅這組個案為例,討論方士化、術士化的巫者的造神。本文結論挑戰學界認為三國兩晉南北朝時期的民間信仰是混亂而隨意的論點,其實,當中由精英敘述體現出來的古今一轍的秩序,是國家經歷分裂時期重新走向統一的底色與基石。
The purpose of this dissertation is to survey how human spirits were created and adhered to in medieval China and interpret the spirits’ relationship to state authority. By means of careful historical text analysis of the historical materials, affiliated with the most influential deity Jiang Ziwen in this period, the dissertation argues that the state authority, Chinese shamans (wu), Buddhism, and Daoism have played an integral part in the establishment of human spirits. At the core of the dissertation, the manifestation of Deng Ai as a state sage will be juxtaposed with how the same individual became a folk spirit. The state-folk contradiction will expand into a discussion on how Buddhist shamans and Daoist witches created spirits such as Su Jun and Fu Jian. Daoist theology accelerated during the early-medieval Chinese period which resulted in unknown figures such as Zuo Ci and Kong Yu who, without any notable meritorious deeds, became established as extraordinary Daoist spirits. Zuo Ci and Kong Yu contrast the nearly one-hundred spirits surveyed in this dissertation as the majority became spirits because of their merits to the people. As a result of this study, this dissertation argues that the popular beliefs of post-Han pre-Tang China are not as chaotic or ‘random’ as presented in previous scholarship. Quite the contrary, the spiritual narratives often embody elite narratives and were essential in the reunification of the Chinese people after a period of division.

    Research areas

  • Human Spirits, Early Medieval China, Daoism, Buddhism, State Authority, wu