透過銷售員的面部特徵預測其績效﹕基於成就導向和顧客感知信任的中介作用

Facial Features Predicting Salesperson Performance: The Role of Achievement Drive and Perceived Trustworthiness

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Author(s)

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Detail(s)

Awarding Institution
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Zhilin YANG (Supervisor)
  • Qingyun Jiang (External person) (External Supervisor)
Award date25 Aug 2022

Abstract

近年來,社會各界非常關注生理特徵的經濟後果。隨著中國市場經濟建設的繼續深入,市場競爭越演越烈。企業中的銷售人員往往擔負著把企業產品和服務轉化為價值的重任,也使得他們在企業競爭中的地位日漸凸顯。因而銷售人員的招聘、選拔、任用以及最終的業績在一定程度上影響著企業的生存與發展。房地產行業銷售屬性極強,人們常說,千里馬常有而伯樂不常有,如何選拔最佳的銷售人才,打造一支高水準的銷售團隊,是房地產企業一項永恆的課題。同時,伴隨著人臉識別技術的推廣和應用和元宇宙行業的高速發展,面部特徵逐漸進入到學者和企業實踐家的視野。自古以來,我國就有面孔識人的傳統,那麼面孔線索是否可以幫助企業更好的識人用人,且其背後的理論支撐又是什麼。

本文將面部特徵對行為特質,特別是個人銷售績效的預測引入房地產行業,研究房產銷售人員的面部特徵(面部寬高比)是否能預測其銷售績效?從個體特質和外界感知的角度思考,其中的作用機制是什麼?面部寬高比對銷售績效的預測效力受到哪些因素的制約?

本研究在梳理相關理論與文獻的基礎上推演出本文的整體研究框架及假設,通過問卷調查、二手數據、深度學習法等對理論假設進行實證檢驗,從進化認知和社會認知的角度證實了在房地產行業中,銷售人員面部特徵中的面部寬高比可以有效預測銷售人員的個體績效。其中研究一提取房產銷售人員的面部特徵,通過線性回歸的方法分析了房產銷售人員人臉特徵中的面部寬高比與其銷售績效之間的關係,初步發現了房產銷售人員面部寬高比與其銷售績效(季度平均銷售套數、銷售面積和銷售金額)之間存在正向關係。研究二在研究一的基礎上,對房產銷售人員的性別在面部特徵與銷售績效之間關係的調節效應做了較為詳細的解析,結果表明銷售人員性別會調節其面部寬高與銷售績效之間的關係。研究三通過問卷調研的方式,驗證了個體成就導向在面部寬高比和銷售績效之間關係的仲介作用。研究四和研究五則從顧客感知的視角出發,通過情景實驗方式,收集顧客感知信任的數據,探索銷售人員面部寬高比、顧客感知信任和銷售績效三者之間的關係。

研究結果發現,在控制房產銷售人員人口資訊(性別、年齡、學歷和婚姻狀況)和工作經驗(工作時長)的情況下,面部寬高比與銷售績效(季度平均銷售套數、銷售面積和銷售金額)之間存在顯著的正向關係,即人臉特徵(面部寬高比)與房產銷售人員的銷售績效相關,面部寬高比越大,銷售人員的績效越高。同時,銷售人員性別會調節面部寬高比對銷售績效的影響,具體來說,在面部寬高比對銷售績效的影響,在女性銷售人員中正向顯著,而在男性銷售人員中不顯著。本文還通過多種仲介效應分析方式,從個體特質(成就導向)和他人感知(顧客感知信任)兩個維度證實了面部寬高比和個人銷售績效之間的仲介作用機制。一方面,本文的研究結果表明銷售人員成就導向是面部特徵和銷售績效之間關係的仲介變數,即銷售人員面部越寬的情況下,其成就導向往往越強,而較強的成就導向會導致其銷售能力較高並提高其銷售績效。另一方面,在面部寬高比對銷售績效的預測中,顧客感知信任也起到了部分仲介作用。具體來說,銷售人員面部寬高比與顧客感知信任之間存在顯著的正相關關係,即面部較寬的銷售人員,顧客往往越信任他們,而顧客感知信任又與銷售人員績效正相關,從而證實了顧客感知信任的仲介作用。此外,從成就導向和顧客感知信任仲介作用大小的比較中,我們可以看出,成就導向普遍強於顧客感知信任,這也說明在個人績效成就方面,個體人格特質的作用帶來的影響會相對強於外界感知。

在理論方面,本文從進化認知和社會認知的視角出發,對銷售員績效、面部特徵以及二者交叉領域的研究加以補充和推廣,並提供了新的研究思路。探索了客觀身體特徵對個人行為特質的預測效力,並檢驗了性別在其中的調節作用。同時從個人特質和消費者感知兩個層面對面部寬高比和個人銷售績效之間關係的內因加以探索。

在實踐方面,本文能夠為房地產行業的營銷人員提供一定的指導和借鑒意義。本文的研究結果指出,面部寬高比可一定程度上預測銷售人員的業績,且這一預測效力在不同性別的人群中存在差異。這不僅能夠給一線銷售顧問的招聘提供指導意見,助力於團隊的建設和優化,而且能夠給就業者提供一定程度上的職業指導參考,即不同面部特徵的人可能在個人性格特質和顧客感知傾向上都有差異,從而造成其績效表現的高低。同時,還可為虛擬銷售情景提供研究場景支援。在元宇宙技術與實際場景進一步融合的過程中,房地產行業的線上銷售會逐漸趨於可能。那麼針對虛擬銷售顧問形象特別是面部特徵的設計,本研究結果也給予了一定的啟示。
In recent years, the community has been very concerned about the economic consequences of physiological characteristics. As the construction of China's market economy continues to progress, market competition is becoming more and more intense. Sales personnel in enterprises are often responsible for transforming corporate products and services into value, which also makes their position in corporate competition increasingly prominent. Therefore, the recruitment, selection, appointment and ultimate performance of sales personnel affect the survival and development of enterprises to a certain extent. The real estate industry has strong sales attributes, and it is often said that pearls are everywhere but not the same as the eyes, so how to select the best sales talent and create a high-level sales team is an eternal issue for real estate enterprises. Meanwhile, along with the promotion and application of face recognition technology and the rapid development of the meta-universe industry, facial features have gradually entered the vision of scholars and business practitioners. Since ancient times, China has the tradition of face recognition, so whether facial clues can help enterprises to better recognize and employ people, and what is the theoretical support behind it.

In this paper, we introduce the prediction of behavioral traits, especially individual sales performance, by facial features into the real estate industry, and investigate whether the facial features (facial width-to-height ratio, fWHR) of property salespeople can predict their sales performance? What is the mechanism of action from the perspective of individual traits and external consumer perceptions? What factors govern the predictive validity of fWHR on sales performance?

This study deduces the overall research framework and hypotheses of this paper based on combing related theories and literature, and empirically tests the theoretical hypotheses through questionnaires, secondary data, and deep learning methods to confirm that the fWHR in the facial features of salespersons can effectively predict the individual performance of salespersons in the real estate industry from the perspective of evolutionary cognition and social cognition. Study 1 extracted the facial features of real estate salespeople and analyzed the relationship between the fWHR in the facial features of real estate salespeople and their sales performance by linear regression, and initially found a positive relationship between the fWHR of real estate salespeople and their sales performance (quarterly average number of units sold, area sold and sales amount). Based on Study 1, Study 2 analyzed the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between facial features and sales performance in more detail, and the results showed that the gender of salespersons moderated the relationship between their fWHR and sales performance. Study 3 verified the mediating role of individual achievement orientation in the relationship between fWHR and sales performance by means of a questionnaire survey. Studies 4 and 5 explored the relationship between salesperson fWHR, customer perceived trust, and sales performance from the perspective of customer perceptions through a scenario-based experiment to collect data on customer perceived trust.

The results of the study found that there was a significant positive relationship between fWHR and sales performance (quarterly average number of units sold, square footage sold, and amount sold), controlling for property salesperson demographic information (gender, age, education, and marital status) and work experience (hours worked), facial characteristics (facial width-to-height ratio, fWHR) were associated with property salesperson performance, and the larger the fWHR, the higher the sales The higher the fWHR, the higher the salesperson's performance. Meanwhile, salesperson gender moderates the effect of fWHR on sales performance, specifically, the effect of fWHR on sales performance is positively significant among female salespeople, but not among male salespeople. This paper also confirms the mediating mechanism between fWHR and individual sales performance by means of multiple mediating effects analysis in two dimensions: individual traits (achievement drive) and others' perceptions (customer perceived trust). On the one hand, the results of this paper indicate that achievement orientation is a mediating variable in the relationship between facial characteristics and sales performance, i.e., the wider a salesperson's face is, the stronger his or her achievement orientation tends to be, and a stronger achievement orientation leads to higher sales ability and improves his or her sales performance. On the other hand, customer perceived trust also plays a partially mediating role in the prediction of fWHR on sales performance. Specifically, there is a significant positive relationship between salesperson fWHR and customer perceived trust, i.e., salespeople with wider faces tend to be more trusted by customers, and customer perceived trust is positively related to salesperson performance, thus confirming the mediating role of customer perceived trust. In addition, the comparison of the magnitude of the mediating role of achievement orientation and customer perceived trust shows that achievement orientation is stronger than customer perceived trust, which also indicates that the effect of internal personality traits can be relatively stronger than external perceptions in terms of personal performance achievement.

On the theoretical side, this paper complements and extends research on salesperson performance, facial characteristics, and the intersection of the two from the perspectives of evolutionary and social cognition, and provides new research ideas. The predictive validity of objective physical characteristics on individual behavioral traits is explored, and the moderating role of gender in this is examined. The underlying mechanismof the relationship between fWHR and individual sales performance is also explored at both the personal trait and consumer perception levels.

In terms of practice, this paper can provide some guidance and implications for marketers in the real estate industry. The findings of this paper point out that fWHR can predict salesperson performance, and this predictive validity varies across gender. This can not only provide guidance to the recruitment of front-line sales consultants and help build and optimize the team, but also provide a certain degree of career guidance reference for employed people, i.e., people with different facial features may differ in both personal character traits and customer perception tendencies, thus causing their high and low performance. It can also provide research scenario support for virtual sales scenarios. In the process of further integration of metaverse technology with actual scenarios, online sales in the real estate industry will gradually tend to be possible. Then for the design of virtual sales consultant image, especially facial features, the results of this study also give some insights.

    Research areas

  • Facial Feature, Salesperson Performance, Achievement Drive, Perceived Trustworthiness