授權型領導對下屬工作績效的影響機制研究

The Mechanism of Empowerment Leadership and Work Performance

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Author(s)

  • Nan DU

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Award date30 Aug 2018

Abstract

21世紀以來,隨著經濟的發展,國內外企業之間的競爭日趨激烈。在當前的經濟環境下,事無巨細、親力親為的傳統管理方式顯然已是捉襟見肘。新的經濟環境要求組織領導必須充分調動下屬員工的主觀能動性,提升員工的工作績效,如此才能更好地完成組織目標,促進企業持續穩定的發展。因此許多企業開始對其繁瑣的層級組織結構進行改革削減,逐步向扁平化的組織架構轉變,以此來適應當前社會大環境,並能夠削減企業的管理成本。扁平化的組織結構要求領導者將自身的權力和工作下放給下屬員工,與員工共同完成或直接交予員工承擔,這使得組織的發展更加依賴下屬員工的績效。因此,如何通過授權型領導行為來提升員工的績效,從而有效提升組織的績效,成為企業經營者關心的主要問題。

與此同時,國內外許多學者對“授權型領導”進行了研究,研究結果表明授權型領導能夠給企業帶來正向的積極作用,授權型領導成為企業組織結構變革浪潮中新生的較有效的管理方式之一。現有研究表明,世界範圍內採用了類似於“授權型領導”的組織已經超過了70%。“授權型領導”成為影響員工績效、組織發展的重要因素之一。本文運用激勵理論,著重關注心理授權在授權型領導和員工工作績效之間的仲介作用,並探究領導對員工內部人身份認知和員工自身內部人身份認知在這一作用過程中的權變影響。本文首先從理論上梳理了授權型領導、心理授權、內部人身份認知以及工作績效的相關文獻,基於對文獻的演繹分析推演出本文的假設,構建授權型領導對員工工作績效影響過程的作用模型。在此基礎上,通過小規模調研修正並形成調查問卷,通過對上海和甘肅6家企業792份有效問卷的實證分析,對演繹推導出的理論假設和模型進行檢驗。基於以上研究過程,本文主要得到如下結論:

1、授權型領導和員工工作績效之間的關係:
本文的研究結果顯示,無論採取是主管評定的客觀工作績效、員工自行評定的主觀工作績效抑或團隊層面的績效作為因變數,授權型領導的正向作用都得到了證實。本文的研究結果與現有文獻中有關授權型領導的多維度、多層次正向績效表徵是一致的,如:體現為參與決策、創新行為、合作行為等客觀行為的客觀工作績效(Chen,2011;張華磊,2014),員工感知的工作績效(Christine, 1999),以及團隊績效(孫聖蘭和呂潔,2006;王永麗,2009)。上述分析結果也說明,授權型領導的正向作用在我國民營企業中已得到了實際的運用,授權型領導的一般作用機理同樣適用於我國的民營企業。

2、心理授權在授權型領導和員工工作績效之間的仲介作用:
本文的研究表明,如果以客觀工作績效來衡量,心理授權在授權型領導與員工工作績效之間起到的是完全仲介作用。這一結果與現有研究中關於授權型領導與創新行為等客觀績效之間關係的發現是一致的(馮永春等2011;李洋,2013)。進一步的研究則表明,如果以員工自我感知的工作績效和團隊績效來衡量,那麼心理授權在授權型領導與員工工作績效起到的是部分仲介作用。這一結果與Zhang(2010)主張的授權型領導的“多路徑”作用機理相一致。通過同時考慮員工的客觀工作績效和員工對自己工作績效的主觀感知,本文的研究結果對授權型領導對員工工作績效的顯著提升作用,以及心理授權在其中所起到的獨特作用,進行了更為全面和系統的呈現。

3、內部人身份認知的調節作用:員工和主管認知的差異
本研究聚焦於員工和主管在“內部人身份”含義的理解和所信奉的判定標準上的差異,檢驗主管對員工是否具有內部人身份的主觀認知對心理授權與員工工作績效間關係的調節作用。主管是組織和團隊內規則與規範的有力塑造者。被主管認為具有內部人身份的正向調節作用,在以主觀工作績效和團隊績效為因變數的回歸分析中得到了確認,但統計上卻較不顯著;在以客觀工作績效作為因變數的回歸分析中呈現了與假設預期相反的結果,對於被領導認為具有內部人身份的員工,其心理授權對工作績效的正向效果更弱。對於上述看似矛盾的分析結果,一個合理的解釋可能是,在中國民營企業員工所信奉的“職場規則與範式”中上述兩種異質的規則、範式混在,且“職業精神”邏輯並未佔據足夠顯著的主導地位,使得其對於組織行為的影響效果無法通過線性的回歸分析予以有效識別。

相比較而言,員工對組織與團隊內部規則、範式的塑造進程的參與是非主導、非支配性的。因此,員工對自身內部人身份的認知更多是對其基於所信奉的“職場信條”所進行的、對自己是否已進入主管的“圈子”所進行的判斷,具有更突出的“認知”而非“結構”特徵,以及通過提升工作績效從而達到成為領導“圈內人”要求的自我激勵傾向。對這一“認知”因素的調節效應進行的回歸分析表明,自認為具有內部人身份的員工,相比較於自認為沒有內部分身份的員工,其心理授權對工作績效的正面影響更強的假設獲得了支持。這反映出在中國民營企業員工中,“職業精神”在一定程度上存在並起到了對員工自我激勵的作用,但與此同時也並不能排除“圈子文化”所起到的正向調節效果。

4、內部人身份認知的權變性:不同類型員工的認知差異
本研究聚焦於不同類型員工在“內部人身份”含義的理解和所信奉的判定標準上的差異。對這一差異的解明,將有利於進一步探究內部人身份認知調節作用如何權變。分析結果表明,對於知識型員工來說,成為領導“身邊人”將會顯著促進其所獲得的心理授權對工作績效的提升效果。這一結果與以知識型員工為物件的現有研究的發現相一致(國維瀟,2014;雷巧玲,2007;李洋,2013)。進一步的分析結果表明,對於非知識型員工來說,成為領導“身邊人”將會削弱其所獲得的心理授權對工作績效的提升效果。知識型員工和非知識型員工在職位、教育程度上存在顯著差異,使得其在對“職業精神”和“圈子文化”這兩種異質職場文化的嵌入性方面同樣存在差異。與此同時,本文分別使用知識型員工樣本和非知識型員工樣本,對包含員工對自身內部人身份認知的交互項進行了回歸分析。研究結果表明,認為自己是領導的“圈內人”會顯著促進心理授權對知識型員工的工作績效的提升效應 。經過進一步的分析我們發現,認為自己是領導的“圈內人”會顯著促進心理授權對非知識型員工的工作績效的提升。
Since the 21st century, with the economic development, the competition between domestic and foreign enterprises has become increasingly fierce. In the current economic environment, the traditional management methods of meticulousness and hands-on are clearly overstretched. The new economic environment requires that the organization's leadership must fully mobilize the subjective initiative of its subordinate employees and improve the work performance of employees, so that they can do better to accomplish their organizational goals and promote the sustainable and stable development of the company. As a result, many companies began to reform their cumbersome hierarchical organizational structure and gradually transform their organizational structure into a flat organizational structure to adapt to the current social environment and reduce the company's management costs. The flat organizational structure requires leaders to delegate their own power and work to their employees and together with the employees to complete or directly to employees, which makes the development of the organization more dependent on the performance of subordinate employees. Therefore, how to improve the performance of employees through authorized leadership behaviors and effectively improve the performance of the organization has become a major concern for business operators.

At the same time, many scholars at home and abroad have conducted research on "authorized leadership", and the research results show that authorized leaders can bring positive positive effects to enterprises, and authorized leadership behaviors become one of more effective methods in the wave of corporate organizational structure changes. Existing research shows that more than 70% of organizations worldwide use "authorized leadership". "Authorized leadership" has become one of the key factors that affect employee performance and organizational development. This paper uses incentive theory to focus on the intermediary role of psychological empowerment between empowered leadership and employee performance, and explores the impact that leader's perception on the employee internal identities and the perception of employee themselves on employee internal identities in this process. This article first combs the theoretical literature on the authoritative leadership, psychological empowerment, cognition of insider identity and work performance. Based on the deductive analysis of the literature, we put forward the hypothesis of this paper, and constructs the model of the influence of authorized leadership on employee performance. On this basis, we conducted a small survey and correction of errors and form a questionnaire, and through empirical analysis of 792 valid questionnaires from 6 companies in Shanghai and Gansu, the theoretical assumptions and models derived from the deduction were examined. Based on the above research process, this article mainly draws the following conclusions:

1. The relationship between authorized leaders and employee performance:
The research results in this paper show that the positive effects of authorized leadership have been verified whether they are the objective job performance assessed by the supervisor, the subjective job performance assessed by the employee, or the team-level performance as the dependent variable. The research results of this paper are consistent with the multi-dimensional and multi-level positive performance characterization of the authorized leadership in the existing literature, such as: the objective performance of objective behaviors such as participation in decision-making, innovation behavior, and cooperative behavior (Chen, 2011; Zhang Hualei, 2014), employee-perceived job performance (Christine, 1999), and team performance (Sun Shenglan and Lv Jie, 2006; Wang Yongli, 2009). The above analysis results also show that the positive role of authorized leadership has been practically applied in private enterprises in China, and the general mechanism of action of authorized leadership is also applicable to private enterprises in China.

2. The intermediary role of psychological empowerment between empowered leadership and employee performance:
The research in this paper shows that if measured by objective job performance, psychological empowerment plays a completely mediating role between empowered leadership and employee performance. This result is consistent with the findings of the existing research on the relationship between the authorized leadership and the objective performance such as innovation behavior (Feng Yongchun et al. 2011; Li Yang, 2013). Further research shows that, if measured by employees' self-perceived work performance and team performance, then the psychological empowerment plays a partial intermediary role in authorized leadership and employee work performance. This result is consistent with the "multi-path" action mechanism of the authoried leadership advocated by Zhang (2010). By considering both the objective job performance of employees and their subjective perceptions of their own work performance, the findings of this paper have a more comprehensive and systematic presentation of the significant improvement of employees' performance improved by authorized leadership, and the unique role played by psychological empowerment in this process.

3. The moderating effect of the cognition of insider' status: the differences in cognition between employees and supervisors.
This study focuses on the differences in the understanding of the meaning of "insider status" between employees and supervisors, and the differences in the criteria for determining beliefs. The test examines the moderating effect of the subjective perception of whether employees have insider' status on the relationship between psychological empowerment and employee performance. Executives are the powerful shapers of rules and regulations in organizations and teams. The positive adjustment role of insider status considered by the supervisor was confirmed in the regression analysis with subjective work performance and team performance as the dependent variable, but was statistically less significant; but in the regression analysis with objective work performance as the dependent variable, the results are contrary to the assumptions are presented. For the employees who are considered as insiders by the leaders, their psychological empowerment has a weaker positive effect on their job performance. For the seemingly contradictory analysis results, a reasonable explanation may be that in the "workplace rules and paradigms" that Chinese private enterprise employees believe in, the rules and paradigms which the above-metioned two heterogeneousare are mixed, and the logic of "professionalism" is not occupies a sufficiently dominant position, so that its effect on organizational behavior cannot be effectively identified by linear regression analysis.

In contrast, the participation of employees in the shaping process of internal rules and paradigms of organizations and teams is non-dominant and non-dominant. Therefore, employees' cognition of insider' status are more of a judgment based on their belief in the "workplace tenets" and whether they have entered the "circle" of their supervisors, it has a more outstanding characteristics of "cognitive" rather than "structure" feature, and through the promotion of job performance to achieve the self-incentive tendency that the demand of entering into a leader' insider circle. The regression analysis of the "cognitive" factor's adjustment effect shows that employees who think they have an insider's status are more likely to be supported by the assumption that their psychological empowerment has a stronger positive impact on job performance than employees who do not think they have an insider status. This reflects that the in employees in private enterprise in China, "professionalism",to a certain extent, exists and has played a positive role in the self-motivation of employees, but at the same time it can not rule out the positive adjustment effect of "circle culture".

4. The contingency of the cognition of insider' status: cognitive differences among different types of employees
This study focuses on the differences in the understanding of the meaning of "insider status" among different types of employees and the standards that they believe in. The clarification of this difference will be beneficial to further explore how the adjustment function of cognition of insider' status is contingent. The results of the analysis show that for knowledge workers, becoming a "leader around" people will significantly promote the psychological empowerment they have obtained to improve their work performance. This result is consistent with the findings of existing studies for knowledge workers (Guo Weixiao, 2014; Lei Qiaoling, 2007; Li Yang, 2013). Further analysis shows that for non-knowledge employees, becoming a "leader around people" will weaken the effect of the psychological empowerment they gain on job performance. There are significant differences in the position and educational level between knowledge workers and non-knowledge employees, which makes them equally different in the embeddedness of two heterogeneous workplace cultures which are the "professionalism" and the"circle culture". At the same time, this article uses the knowledge worker sample and the non-knowledge worker sample respectively, and conducts a regression analysis on the interaction items that include the employee's cogniaztion of insider' status. The research results show that the people who think that they are"insider people" of leaders will significantly promote the enhancement effect of psychological authorization on the work performance of knowledge worker. After further analysis, we found that the people who think that they are "insider people" of leaders will significantly promote the promotion of psychological empowerment to the work performance of non-knowledge workers.

    Research areas

  • authorized leadership, psychological empowerment, job performance, the cognition of insider’ status