中國酒店服務模式研究:基於家文化管理的神秘效用

A Study of Chinese Hotel Service Model: Mysterious Utilities Derived from Family-Like Management

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date27 Jun 2017

Abstract

自1982年起,國際酒店集團試水進入中國市場,主要通過管理輸出模式進行戰略擴張。

截至2015年6月底,洲際集團在大中華地區開業酒店總數達239家;溫德姆管理在華酒店數量達916家;歐洲第一大酒店集團雅高,目前在華管理豪華酒店31家、高檔酒店28家、中檔酒店27家;喜達屋集團旗下統轄中國酒店135家,未來5-6年內計畫開業138家;此外,萬豪國際集團管理85家,希爾頓集團管理46家,香格里拉集團現管理酒店43家,即將開業11家。然而近幾年來,國際酒店品牌委託管理運作模式遇到了阻礙,洲際、萬豪、雅高等紛紛出現業主撤牌現象,萬豪集團2008-2011年曾連續三年從北京撤店。與洲際集團分手的北辰實業股份有限公司選擇自主管理,正式涉足酒店管理市場。與此同時,國內實力地產商萬達(萬達嘉華)、綠地(鉑瑞Primus)等均在籌建高端酒店,同時組建了自己的酒店管理團隊,而傳統的內資酒店管理商如錦江、華住、7天等也紛紛矚目高端市場。因此中國迫切需要培養有自己管理理念的的高星酒店民族品牌,以應對外資品牌的挑戰,及顧客日益特色化和個性化的服務體驗需求。

酒店業作為人員密集型高度接觸的服務性企業,其服務管理難免受到社會文化的影響,中國人能否管理好高星級酒店?能否輸出管理?業界始終持疑問態度。因此從中國文化的角度來研究中國的酒店管理,具有重要的理論意義和現實意義。

高接觸服務企業的成功很大程度上取決於一線員工的表現。以往的研究主要聚焦於正規的管理系統和激勵機制。對於全球連鎖酒店而言,穩定和一致的服務品質是通過標準化的服務系統實現的。然後,由於獨特的社會文化環境,中國情景下的員工激勵與西方有所不同。本論文從理論上闡述了家文化對員工管理的影響機制和路徑,並以“親情一家人”服務品牌著稱的中國本土酒店青島海景花園大酒店(以下簡稱海景)的訪談及問卷調查獲得的資料,對理論模型進行了驗證,得到了一系列有價值的研究發現,研究結論豐富了酒店服務管理文獻。

本文總結了海景的成功之道:用“親情”文化引領超前的服務意識、以嚴格激勵制度保障、通過高速的資訊流通、提供無微不至的親情關懷、從而達到培養“家人”為“親人”服務的目標。

海景通過對員工不計成本的培養關愛投入,換取員工對顧客至真至誠、無微不至的關心、照顧,既為員工也為顧客創造了一個家,贏得了員工的主人翁精神、無私奉獻;顧客的驚喜、感動、讚譽、依戀,及情文化傳播。

本研究歸納了青島海景花園大酒店基於家文化的服務管理模式,識別了家文化服務情境下員工主人翁感的四類驅動因素,顧客主人翁感的五類驅動因素,並在服務利潤鏈基礎上歸納出了青島海景花園大酒店的服務親情鏈,在豐富和完善服務價值鏈理論上做出了一定的貢獻。

本文追求的一個主要貢獻在於探求中國高端酒店管理的獨特機制,其有別於西方管理機制。這一探索的理論貢獻在於發現了一種有別於西方酒店服務文獻中已有的軟硬效用,即基於中國文化概念派生出的“神秘效用”。這種文獻中未知的顧客效用讓顧客效用函數增添了新的變數,即追求某種超越軟硬效用之外的旅途體驗。本文的一個重要理論貢獻即分離出這種中國酒店管理的”神秘效用”:基於家文化管理之上的家人般服務所派生出來的“人在旅途,住在家中”的獨特顧客體驗。

筆者探討並比較了規範化管理和家文化氛圍對員工家的感覺、員工主人翁感、員工主人翁行為,進而工作對家庭改善的影響。結果表明,家長式關愛對員工家的感覺的影響最大,其次是包容支援,服務能力培養、獎懲機制。

通過調研筆者在酒店服務領域發現並總結出“海景流派”,這一中國人獨創的酒店管理體系。通過一系列的試住問卷回收和現場訪談以及各個酒店幾乎全部的網評分析,採集了大量資料,並通過分析,證明了中國自創的管理品牌非但可以管理好高星級酒店,同時取得了不俗的業績,更重要的是通過實踐證明了海景模式可以輸出管理能進行成功複製。本研究首先對正在中國酒店業逐步形成的海景管理流派進行了初步探析。

酒店行業在中國還有很大的發展前景,海景是一個典型的案例,其基於家文化的服務管理實踐對相關的服務企業也具有借鑒和參考。

企業善待員工,員工又服務好顧客,這種高度的正相關關係由海景證明是企業管理中行之有效的管理之道。

中國傳統文化的一個重要特點,就是非常重視人自身的教化和塑造,任何一個有責任感的企業都可以成為一所化育人心的學校,這是海景帶給我們的另一個啟示。通過本文的研究或許我們可以認識到中國哲學關於人生境界的“與人為善”基本理解,在這個高科技引領的時代依然對企業管理具有重要的意義。
Since 1982, the international hotel group attempted to enter the Chinese market, mainly through the output management mode to accomplish strategic expansion.

Until the end of June 2015, IHG in Greater China area have opened 239 hotels. The number of Wyndham hotels in China have reached 916. European Largest Hotel group Accor have managed 31 luxury hotels, 28 upscale hotels, 27 mid-sale hotels. Starwood Hotel Group have operated 135 Chinese hotels and the next 5-6 years was going to start business of 138 new hotels. In addition, Marriott International Group manages 85 of them, Hilton Group manages 46 of them, Shangri-La Group currently manages 43 hotels, 11 hotels in the upcoming opening list.

However, in recent years, the international hotel brand management of operation encountered obstacles. The Intercontinental, Marriott, and Accor encountered the phenomenon of owner dismantling. For example, 2008 – 2011, for three consecutive years, Marriott Group dismantled from the Beijing market. Beichen Industrial Limited by Share Ltd who broke up with IHG, chose self-management and official involved the hotel management market. At the same time, domestic real estate developers (Wanda Jiahua), Greenland (Primus) are establishing high-end hotel, also set up their own hotel management team. While traditional domestic funded hotel, such as Jinjiang, HTHT, and Plateno have also attracted the attention of the high-end market. Therefore, the urgent task is to train Chinese high star national brand hotel with Chinese management philosophy, in order to cope with the challenges of foreign brands, and increasingly personalized consumers and personalized service experience needs.

The hotel industry as intensive service enterprises, its service management will inevitably be affected by social and cultural context. Can Chinese people manage high star hotel? Will output management work well? The industry has always been doubting attitude. Therefore, it is great theoretical and practical significance to study China's hotel management from the perspective of Chinese culture.

The success of the high contact service enterprises largely depends on the performance of frontline staffs. Previous studies have mainly focused on formal management systems and incentive mechanisms. For the global hotel chain, stable and consistent service quality is achieved by a standardized service system. Afterwards, because of the unique social and cultural environment, the employee motivation in China is different from the west. This paper expounds the family culture’s influence mechanism and route of employee management theoretically. Chinese local hotel Qingdao Sea View Garden Hotel (hereinafter referred to as the Sea View) is known as a slogan “family affection" .We validated the theoretical mode by interview and questionnaire survey data of Sea View, and obtained a series of valuable research findings. The conclusion of the study has enriched the literature of hotel service management.

This paper summarizes the success of the Sea View: family culture advanced service consciousness; strict incentive system gave security; through the high-speed flow of information to providing meticulous family care, to achieve the service goal which is "family member" serving "family member".

The Sea View trains staff selflessly to exchange for best service and meticulous care for the customers. Sea View created a home for customers and staffs at the same time. Sea View made staffs have owner spirit and selfless dedication spirit. Similar, Sea View gained customer's surprise, moved, praise, attachment, and love culture communication.

The research summarize the Sea View’s service management mode based on family culture. We identify the four driving factors of employee ownership and the five driving factors of consumer ownership. We further develop the service family chain of the Sea View based on its service profit chain and contribute to enrichment and development of service value chain.

We discuss and compare the effects of standardized management and family culture on intimate feeling of a family, employee ownership and employee behavior and further improvement of the family. The result shows that paternalistic care is the strongest to explain the feeling of home. Tolerance, service ability training and reward and punishment mechanism also exert the influence.

By abundant investigations, we put forward “Sea View Genre” which is a hotel management system originally created by Chinese. We demonstrate that Chinese self-created brand could not only manage starred hotel well, but also achieve outstanding financial results by analyzing data collected from questionnaires, field interviews and almost all online comments. What’s more, practice shows that the pattern could be applied and replicated in other situations. The research firstly explores evolving “Sea View Genre” in Chinese hotel industry.

There are bright prospects in Chinse hotel industry. The Sea View is a representative case, whose service management based on family culture is worth learning.

Serving clients well raising from treating employees is the core of the “Sea View Genre”.

“Sea View Genre” indicates that any responsible enterprise is also a edifying campus. Through the research, we believe that kindness regarding life realm may be vital to management.

    Research areas

  • Family culture, intimate feeling of a family, ownership