中國家族企業主領導行為與職業經理人響應 : 基於領導理論視角的實證研究

Owner leadership behavior and managers' reactions in Chinese family enterprises : a leadership-style perspective

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Author(s)

  • Yiliang TAN

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Award date2 Oct 2013

Abstract

家族企業如何才能可持續發展?這是大多數家族企業老闆最為關心的問題。在家族企業的發展過程中,大量事實表明家族企業家的領導行為往往是決定企業命運的重要因素,企業的興盛與衰敗,往往取決於企業家是否“領導有方”,取決於企業家(主要是以家族企業主為代表)的領導行為的有效性上,具體來說就是他們是否形成了自己獨特的、適合商業發展趨勢的領導行為和管理模式。 另一方面,家族企業在成長過程中,限於家族自身人力資源供給不足的客觀條件,家族內的成員很難滿足企業發展和管理的方方面面,必然有越來越多的非家族成員參與其中,引入職業管理團隊也是傳統家族企業走向現代家族企業的必要條件。 作為家族企業組織結構最基本的構成要素,家族企業主與職業經理人接觸密切,互相影響頻繁,職業經理人必須依賴企業領導來獲取各種組織資源,從而發揮管理效能;他們也會根據自己感知到的來自家族企業領導行為的外在表現及印象,相應地調整自己在該組織中的態度和行為。所以家族企業主與職業經理人的互動關係必然將極大制約家族企業的成長與健康發展,本文也因此將研究重點關注二者之間的互動關係。 本文回顧了中外文獻,針對各種關於家族企業,企業領導行為的理論研究成果進行了歸納整理,並且對本文研究所涉及到的企業主價值觀、組織公平、領導-部屬關係、員工行為等相關研究成果進行了分析評述,為開展本文的研究進行了理論鋪墊。 為了構建本文的理論研究框架,在社會角色、社會交換等理論的基礎上,本文進行了研究方向的探索,理論模型的推導及構建。並對本文涉及到的研究變數 進行了總結和梳理,確定了各個變數概念的構成;之後通過規範的量表開發步 驟,確定了測量維度及測量專案,利用多種方法發展問卷測項,形成調研問卷。 並且在預調研的基礎上,對調研問捲進行了部分修正和完善。 本文主要實證研究包括了兩個部分。首先對家族企業主領導行為及其影響因 素進行了實證研究,在以往研究成果的推導下,本文嘗試建立了“內外影響因 素—〉家族企業主領導行為類型”的理論研究模型。之後通過調研問卷的發放, 資料的回收整理,使用結構方程模型(SEM)的研究方法,運用SPSS,AMOS 等 軟體對家族企業主領導行為的各項研究假設進行了驗證,獲得相應的研究成果。 其次,基於社會交換等理論視角,本文以家族企業主領導行為與其職業經理 人行為關係作為分析物件,通過構建:“家族企業主領導行為類型—〉企業主與 職業經理人互動關係—〉職業經理人行為反應”的理論結構模型,以及各項研究 假設。為了使該模型具有一定的預測性和解釋力,以及驗證研究模型及假設,本 文將職業經理人在組織中的感知狀態與其態度和行為表現聯繫起來,分析了企業 主領導行為作用的路徑、方式和程度,對職業經理人行為反應進行瞭解釋。 本文的研究結果有如下發現: 1.當前國內現實背景下的家族企業主領導行為概念理論模型構建。本研究 的初步結果顯示,從家族企業主與其職業經理人互動關係的視角出發,家族企業 主領導行為是多維變數,其中應包含了基於情感關係領導行為、基於工作(過程) 關聯式領導行為、基於工作(結果)關聯式領導行為。 2.家族企業領導行為的主要影響因素。家族企業主傳統價值觀將正向影響 家族企業主基於情感關聯式領導行為;而家族企業主現代價值觀將正向影響家族企業主基於工作(結果)關聯式領導行為,以及基於工作(過程)關聯式領導行 為。 而不同市場競爭程度下,家族企業主領導行為呈現出顯著差異。另外企業的 某些特性也影響到家族企業主的領導行為表現,當家族企業處於不同行業類型, 不同成立年限、不同規模、不同發展階段時間,其家族企業主領導行為表現出明 顯差異。 3.家族企業主領導行為與職業經理人行為反應關係。在“家族企業主領導行 為類型=>企業主與職業經理人互動關係=>職業經理人行為反應”的理論結構模 型中,本文研究的三類家族企業主領導行為,均通過領導-部屬關係及組織公平 變數對職業經理人行為產生影響,但是他們的作用程度及範圍存在一定的差異; 領導-部屬關係、組織公平在整體模型中的仲介作用也存在差異。 針對所取得的研究成果,本文對家族企業管理者,以及家族企業文化建設提 出了相應的建議和對策。 本文可能的研究創新主要在於,運用了社會交換等理論在家族企業組織行為 研究領域,嘗試了拓展性研究。以家族企業中的領導者與經理人的互動關係為切 入點,分析在中國的家族企業中,家族企業主領導行為的構成以及對職業經理人 的影響過程。由於受到樣本區域、橫截面資料等因素的影響,本文的研究結論還 需要得到進一步的驗證。本文最後對未來的研究方向進行了總結。 The private enterprises in China (family enterprises as a major form) have turned out to be one of the indispensible components promoting the development of the national economy. It is widely proved that the leadership behavior is the key determinant of family enterprises’ success. The ups and downs of family enterprises,among other things, depend on the effectiveness of their owners’ leadership behavior, that is, their unique, appropriate and indigenous leadership styles and management models. Being subjected to the inadequate human resources and other conditions, family enterprises may be restrained to further their development and management only with the support of the family members. Thus, they must attract more and more non-family members, known as the professional management team, to join the organization, which is an essential process of transferring the traditional family enterprises into modern ones. Firm performance for Chinese family enterprises depends on the firm owner who cultivates a close relationship with his/her professional managers, with the latter relying on a variety of organization resources from the former, to play the management roles effectively. The professional managers may also adjust their attitudes and behaviors according to what they perceive about the owner’s leadership behavior. The mutual relationship between the both parties will necessarily affect the development of family enterprises, which constitutes the focus of this research. This dissertation reviews both Chinese and foreign literatures on family enterprises, particularly focusing on owners’ leadership styles in relation to owners’ values, organization justice, leader-management exchange, employee behavior, which form the theoretical foundation of this paper. In order to construct the theoretical framework, the paper explores the research direction, deduces and constructs the theoretical model based on such theories as social roles, social exchange and social attribution. The research variables of the paper are collected and confirmed, followed by the exploration of the research scales, including the measuring dimensions and items by a variety of methods. The results of questionnaires are revised and replenished on the basis of a pilot test. The empirical research of the paper contains two parts. First, we examine owner leadership behavior and its antecedents. The paper identifies several antecedents of owner leadership behavior based on both internal and external factors. Research hypotheses are developed and empirical studies largely support these propositions Second, the dissertation takes the mutual relationship between owner leadership behaviors and behavioral responses of professional managers as another research object. We classify owner leadership behavior into two types: emotion-based leadership style and worl-related leadership style; we then investigeate their respective effects on managers’ perceptions of orgnazational justice and relational closeness, which again lead to managers’ work satisfaction, organizational commitment, and citizenship. Empirical studies support most of the research hypotheses in this part. Specific research results of the paper are summarized as follows: 1) The study constructs the model of owner leadership behavior of the family enterprise based on the current situation in China. The paper takes the concept of owner leadership behavior of the family enterprise as multi-dimensional, which includes emotion of relationship (EOR) between the owner of family enterprise and the professional managers, and task of relationship in results (TORR), and that of task of relationship in process (TORP) of both parties. 2) The main antecedents of owner leadership behavior pertain to owner values, the nature of the company, and market environments. The traditional value (Tvalue) of the owner will positively affect leadership behavior on emotional of relationship (EOR), while the modern value (Mvalue) will positively affect that of task of relationship in result (TORR), and that of task of relationship in process (TORP). The degree of market competition will affect owner leadership behavior differently. The nature of the company such as its size, industrial characteristics, development stage, and foundation time will also influence owner leadership behavior. 3) In the research model of “mutual relationship between owner leadership behavior and professional mangers’ responses”, the triple styles of owner leadership behaviors are all found to affect the professional managers’ responses through the mediating variable of leader-management exchange (LMX) and organization justice. However, the routines and ranges of these functions are different, with different mediation effects of LMX and organization justice. This dissertation contributes to the extant literature by applying multiple theories to look at owner leadership behavior in Chinese family enterprises. We find that emotion-based leadership styles may also encourage professional managers’ work ethics and facilitate the formation of stable firm structure and performance through a Chinese concept of harmony. Mangerial implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions based on the limitation of the study are pointed out.

    Research areas

  • China, Executives, Management, Employees, Leadership, Family-owned business enterprises