律師社交媒體使用對其工作效率的影響研究–基於工作重塑的視角

The Impact of Lawyer's Social Media Use on Work Efficiency: From A Job Crafting Perspective

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date24 Oct 2022

Abstract

蓬勃發展的社交媒體技術不僅大範圍地影響著人們的生活,也逐漸被各類組織運用於工作中。在律師工作中,社交媒體也被越來越多地使用以支持同事之間、團隊內部的溝通和協作,或律師與客戶之間的交流。

社交媒體系統具有豐富的溝通功能,支持位於不同地點、不同時區的用戶溝通,能夠同時支持用戶與特定的個人、群體之間的互動以及信息廣播。同時,社交媒體具有可塑造性,用戶能夠自主決定如何使用系統的溝通功能,並主動在系統中發佈各類信息,包括工作相關的信息或生活相關的信息。基於社交媒體的功能,在工作中使用社交媒體將為律師的工作帶來明顯的改變——明顯降低溝通的成本,支持律師工作中同時管理與多位個人或多個群組的溝通,提高溝通頻率和效率;得到更豐富的信息資源,包括便捷地獲得更多同事和客戶相關的工作狀態等信息或同事、客戶的個人相關的信息等。與此同時,社交媒體的可塑造性支持律師自主選擇如何使用系統以完成自身的工作,從而能夠使律師自主設計工作的行為成為可能。針對這一現象,本文認為在工作中使用社交媒體技術將促使律師在使用該技術時重塑自身的工作,並進一步影響律師的工作。分析律師工作中使用社交媒體時的工作重塑行為將有助於瞭解技術為律師工作帶來的影響及結果,以更好地應對技術的使用帶來的影響。

工作重塑相關研究主要討論了個人相關特徵、環境因素(如組織中的領導力、來自同事的社交支持等)對於員工的工作重塑行為的影響,缺乏對於信息技術的使用對於員工工作重塑的作用的討論,也缺乏對於律師工作這一情境下的工作重塑行為的分析。本文研究的主要目的在於從律師的工作重塑視角分析在律師工作這一情境中使用社交媒體技術的影響。本文首先梳理了工作中使用社交媒體的影響以及工作重塑的研究現狀。基於工作需求-資源理論,本文分析了使用社交媒體技術對於律師工作的資源和需求兩方面的改變,並進一步根據挑戰型和阻礙型需求分析的思路,將社交媒體導致的律師工作改變分為社交媒體驅動的資源改變、社交媒體驅動的挑戰型需求改變以及阻礙型需求的改變三個類別。本文結合工作需求-資源理論以及對接近型和阻礙型工作重塑行為的分析框架,本文將律師的工作重塑行為分為六類,分析了律師工作的資源和需求改變如何影響律師的六類工作重塑行為,並進而分析了律師的不同工作重塑行為對個人工作效率的影響。

本文采用問卷調研的方法對研究模型進行檢驗,在律師樣本中發放問卷並收集數據,采用結構方程模型的方法檢驗研究假設。本文的研究結果表明,使用社交媒體使律師獲得了自主性、職業發展機會、績效反饋和信息支持這四個維度的工作資源,也增加了工作的挑戰型需求,即使律師的工作負載更重,工作中面對更大的時間壓力和學習要求,以及更多的阻礙型工作需求,包括更大程度的資源制約、角色模糊和角色衝突。使用社交媒體為律師帶來的工作資源方面的改變將促使律師產生接近資源工作重塑行為和回避資源工作重塑行為;挑戰型的工作需求的改變有利於促使律師產生接近挑戰型需求工作重塑行為和回避挑戰型需求工作重塑行為,而阻礙型的工作需求將更多地使律師產生接近阻礙型需求工作重塑行為和回避阻礙型需求工作重塑行為。律師的三類接近導向的工作重塑行為均有利於提高工作效率,而回避導向的工作重塑行為中,只有回避阻礙型需求工作重塑行為對於提高工作效率有顯著影響。

本文的研究對於工作重塑、社交媒體使用對工作的影響等研究領域具有重要的理論貢獻,同時為律師瞭解工作中使用社交媒體對於自身工作行為帶來何種影響、瞭解重塑自身工作的方式提供了參考。
Social media is not only impacting people's lives on a large scale, but also increasingly being used in organizations. Social media is also increasingly being used by lawyers to support communication and collaboration with colleagues or clients.

The communication function of social media supports communication among colleagues in different locations and time zones, facilitating information broadcasting such that information can spread among individuals and specific colleagues or groups. Besides, social media is malleable, i.e., users can decide how to use the communication functions and actively share various types of information in the system, including work-related information or nonwork-related information. For lawyers, using social media at work will bring great changes to their work including enabling lawyers to manage communications with multiple colleagues or clients in different groups simultaneously in a more efficient way, and facilitating them to have access to more information about the work status and personal information of colleagues and clients. Meanwhile, the malleability of social media facilitates lawyers to actively choose how to use the system to complete tasks, which makes it possible for lawyers to design their own work. To capture this issue, this thesis proposes that the use of social media at work will lead lawyers to craft their work (i.e., job crafting) and further influence their work efficiency. Understanding lawyers’ job crafting behaviors induced by the social media use at work will help to understand the mechanism about how social media use affects work efficiency and how lawyers cope with the changes brought by the technology.

Previous studies have discussed the effects of individual-related characteristics and environmental factors (e.g., leadership in the organization, social support from colleagues, etc.) on employees’ job crafting behaviors. There is a lack of discussion on the impact of information technology on employees' job crafting behaviors as well as the analysis of lawyers’ job crafting behaviors. The main purpose of this thesis is to explore and analyze the impact of social media use on lawyers’ job crafting behaviors.

The thesis first reviews the literature on the role of social media use in work and job crafting. Based on job demands-resources theory and the challenge – hindrance framework of job demands, the thesis specifies three kinds of changes caused by social media use namely the changes in job resources, the changes in challenge demands, and the changes in hindrance demands. Further, considering that job crafting can be either in an approach way or an avoidance way, this thesis identifies six types of job crafting and further examines the impacts of these six job crafting behaviors.

A survey of lawyers was used to test the research model and hypotheses, and structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results indicate that the use of social media in the workplace supports lawyers to get access to more resources, including autonomy, opportunities for professional development, performance feedback and information support. It has also led to the increase of challenge job demands, including workload, time urgency and learning opportunities, and the increase of hindrance job demands which includes resource constraints, role ambiguity and role conflict. The changes of job resources will lead to lawyers’ approach resource crafting behaviors and avoidance resource crafting behaviors. The changes in challenge job demands will be positively associated with approach challenge demand crafting behaviors and avoidance challenge demand crafting behaviors, while hinderance job demands will lead to approach hinderance demand crafting behaviors and avoidance hindrance demand crafting behaviors. All the three types of approach crafting behaviors contribute to the increase of lawyers’ work efficiency. In contrast, for the three types of avoidance crafting behaviors, only the avoidance hindrance demand crafting behaviors is found to significantly influence work efficiency.

The thesis makes theoretical contributions to the literature on job crafting and the research on social media use at work. The thesis also provides guidance for lawyers to understand how the use of social media at work affects their job crafting behaviors and how to cope with the changes brought by social media use.

    Research areas

  • Social Media, Job Crafting, Job Demands-Resources Theory