被害人過錯認定的實踐與法理

The Practice and Jurisprudence of the Victim Fault Determination

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date30 Sep 2022

Abstract

被害人过错通常是指由被害人做出的,与犯罪人的犯罪行为发生有直接或间接关系,且基于社会伦理和法律精神应当受责难的一种行为。被害人和被告人,是一对刑事案件中的基本矛盾,在故意伤害、故意杀人、寻衅滋事及敲诈勒索等案件中,犯罪行为的发生和被害结果的形成并非总是消极和静止的,往往是犯罪人和被害人双方互动的结果,正确认定和准确适用“被害人过错”,对于实现罪刑相适应和刑罚个别化意义深远。

我国针对被害人过错情节认定适用的法律规范较少,刑法没有确定被害人过错作为法定定罪量刑情节,同时也不存在具体适用标准,被害人过错仅仅是刑法中的酌定量刑情节,导致在审理案件时认定被害人过错影响程度不同,案件处理结果不一的情况时常发生。统一“被害人过错”这一定罪量刑情节的标准和尺度,是亟待解决的实践难题。

论文通过实证分析法检索法院裁判文书网和相关案例汇编,对近年来涉及受害人过错的故意杀人、故意伤害、集资诈骗、交通肇事罪案件进行分析,对受害人的过错程度、过错类型等以及法院的采纳程度归纳总结。通过个案分析法研究典型案例,总结被害人过错体系化、类型化特点。运用比较分析法研究域外有关被害人过错的理论和实践,便于对我国司法制度的完善给与参考和借鉴。论文还辅助运用数据分析的方法对被害人过错与量刑裁判的关系进行阐述。通过展示和分析数据,反映被害人过错作为酌定量刑情节的实践困境和作用缺失。判断判决是否真正符合刑法的价值和精神,对被害人犯罪过程的影响进行详细分析。

论文除了分为六个部分。第一部分导论。第二部分被害人过错理论重述与评论。从典型案例入手,以天理人情为视角,论证研究被害人过错的实践和理论意义,对相关观点、理论进行归纳提炼,总结被害人过错对刑事责任的影响。第三部分法律与司法实践中被害人过错认定。对被害人过错进行实证分析,分析法律与司法实践中被害人过错的认定现状,提出目前被害人过错认定存在的问题。第四部分被害人过错对刑事责任的影响。通过将被害人过错纳入刑事审判中的定罪与量刑环节,并对结果产生影响,使得刑事诉讼构造能更加客观地反映案件实际状况,确保审判的公平公正。第五部分被害人过错制度设计与运行前瞻。通过被害人过错情节的法定化,构建系统的被害人过错制度,以公平正义为终极原则,提出被害人过错情节法定化的制度设计路径与司法运行前瞻。第六部分结论。

对于刑事审判立法和实践,建立被害人过错制度的最主要核心是实行被害人过错情节法定化,即将被害人过错学说演绎为被害人过错制度。被害人过错制度的具体设计路径是采用总则、司法解释规定相结合的模式,即既在刑法总则中就被害人过错影响刑事责任进行原则性规定,同时又在司法解释中明确被害人过错的概念、种类、构成要件、被害人过错认定标准以及被害人过错影响刑事责任的一般规定,规定特定种类、特定罪名中的被害人过错影响刑事责任的条款,针对被害人过错认定与适用进行细化。另外在《刑事诉讼法》中规定有关被害人过错的认定程序、证据收集、举证、质证、证明标准等问题。推进被害人过错制度与刑事和解制度、认罪认罚从宽制度、自诉案件民事赔偿制度的融合,进一步推进量刑程序规范化,丰富我国的刑法体系。通过及时发布司法解释、指导性案例和量刑指导意见等方式,明确被害人过错情节法定化中的具体问题。

研究被害人过错司法认定和适用,并不是为被告人减轻罪责,而是要以公正的态度对待被害人和被告人,探求我国罪刑评价体系的缺陷和漏洞,明晰研究被害人过错行为的价值意义,期冀在相关刑事案件处理过程之中,司法工作者能够从法律、天理与人情的关系出发,全面考虑犯罪发生发展的各种因素,对行为人作出准确的刑法评价,最终做到罪刑相适应,让每一个司法案件都能实现公平正义。
The victim's fault usually refers to a kind of behavior made by the victim, which is directly or indirectly related to the criminal behavior of the offender, and should be blamed based on social ethics and legal spirit. The victim and the defendant are a pair of basic contradictions in criminal cases. In cases of intentional injury, intentional homicide, provocation and extortion, the occurrence of criminal acts and the formation of victimized results are not always negative and static, but often the result of the interaction between the offender and the victim. Correctly identify and accurately apply the "victim's fault", It is of far-reaching significance to realize the adaptation of crime and punishment and the individualization of punishment.

There are few applicable legal norms for the identification of the victim's fault circumstances in China. The criminal law does not determine the victim's fault as the statutory conviction and sentencing circumstances. At the same time, there is no specific applicable standard. The victim's fault is only the discretionary sentencing circumstances in the criminal law, which leads to different influence degrees of the victim's fault in the trial of cases and different case handling results. It is an urgent practical problem to unify the standards and scales of "victim's fault", which is the sentencing circumstances of a certain crime.

Through the empirical analysis method, this paper searches the court judgment document network and relevant case compilation, analyzes the cases of intentional homicide, intentional injury, fund-raising fraud and traffic accident involving the fault of the victim in recent years, and summarizes the fault degree, fault type of the victim and the adoption degree of the court. Through the case analysis method to study typical cases, this paper summarizes the systematic and typed characteristics of the victim's fault. The use of comparative analysis to study the theory and practice of victims' fault abroad is convenient for reference and reference to the improvement of China's judicial system. The paper also uses the method of data analysis to elaborate the relationship between the victim's fault and sentencing judgment. Through the display and analysis of data, it reflects the practical dilemma and lack of function of the victim's fault as a discretionary sentencing plot. It also uses the analysis method of legal psychology as an auxiliary research method to judge whether the judgment really conforms to the value and spirit of criminal law, and makes a detailed analysis of the psychological law of the victim's criminal process.

The paper is divided into six parts. The first part is introduction. The second part is the restatement and comment of the victim's fault theory. Starting from typical cases, from the perspective of justice and human feelings, demonstrate and study the practical and theoretical significance of the victim's fault, summarize and refine the relevant views and theories, and summarize the impact of the victim's fault on criminal responsibility. The third part is the identification of the victim's fault in legal and judicial practice. This paper makes an empirical analysis of the victim's fault, analyzes the current situation of the victim's fault identification in legal and judicial practice, and puts forward the problems existing in the victim's fault identification. The fourth part is the influence of fault on the victim. By incorporating the victim's fault into the conviction and sentencing links in the criminal trial and affecting the results, the criminal procedure structure can more objectively reflect the actual situation of the case and ensure the fairness and justice of the trial. The fifth part is the development vision of the theory of victim's fault in crime and punishment. Through the legalization of the victim's fault circumstances, build a systematic victim's fault system, take fairness and justice as the ultimate principle, and put forward the system design and judicial operation prospect of the legalization of the victim's fault circumstances. The last part is epilogue.

For criminal trial legislation and practice, the most important core of establishing the victim fault system is to legalize the victim fault circumstances, that is, the victim fault theory is deduced into the victim fault system. The specific design path of the victim's fault system is to adopt the mode of combining the general provisions and judicial interpretation, that is, it not only stipulates that the victim's fault in specific types and specific charges affects the criminal responsibility in the judicial interpretation of the criminal law, but also makes principled provisions on the victim's fault affecting the criminal responsibility in the general provisions of the criminal law. In the general provisions of the criminal law, add the concept, types, constituent elements, identification standards of the victim's fault and the legal norms of the general provisions of the victim's fault affecting criminal liability, add the provisions of the victim's fault affecting criminal liability in specific cases in the judicial interpretation of the criminal law, and refine the relevant provisions of the victim's fault in each specific crime. In addition, the criminal procedure law stipulates the identification procedure, evidence collection, proof, cross examination and proof standard of the victim's fault. Promote the integration of the victim's fault system with the criminal reconciliation system, the leniency system of pleading guilty and punishment, and the civil compensation system of private prosecution cases, and further promote the standardization of sentencing procedures. Enrich China's criminal law system, timely release judicial interpretation, guiding cases and sentencing guidance, and clarify the specific problems in the legalization of the victim's fault circumstances.

Studying the judicial identification and application of the victim's fault is not to reduce the defendant's criminal responsibility, but to treat the victim and the defendant with a fair attitude, explore the defects and loopholes of China's crime and punishment evaluation system, and clarify the value significance of studying the victim's fault behavior, hoping that in the process of dealing with relevant criminal cases, judicial workers can learn from the law Based on the relationship between heaven and human feelings, comprehensively consider various factors of crime occurrence and development, make an accurate criminal law evaluation on the perpetrator, and finally adapt to crime and punishment, so that every judicial case can achieve fairness and justice.

    Research areas

  • victim's fault, Criminal law, Identification and application, Practice, legal principle