Development of Speech Specific Reinvestment Scale


Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Awarding Institution
Award date2 Jun 2020


This study was conducted to develop and validate a speech-specific reinvestment scale (SSRS), which is a psychometric measure of the propensity to consciously control and monitor speech production. The moderating effects of trait social anxieties (e.g., social interaction anxiety, public speaking anxiety, and social phobia) on the relationship between SSRS subdimensions and speech performance were examined. In addition, scale predictive validity tests were conducted using three experimental studies.

Scale development involved four stages: (1) initial item generation based on relevant literature, (2) item evaluation through cognitive interviews with 24 healthy respondents, (3) scale reliability and validity tests using cross-sectional survey data from 498 healthy respondents, and (4) test–retest reliability assessment using longitudinal survey data from 185 healthy respondents. The respondents’ public speech performance was quantified using public speech examination scores. Hierarchical moderated regression analyses were also conducted to examine the moderating effects of trait social anxieties.

The validated SSRS comprised 35 items, which can be categorized into four subdimensions, namely, speech movement self-consciousness and public consciousness of speech content, manner, and movement. The respondents with low trait social anxieties generally indicated a positive relationship between public consciousness of speech movement and public speech performance, whereas the respondents with high social anxieties identified a negative relationship between speech movement self-consciousness and public speech performance.

Experimental results suggested that public consciousness of speech manner and movement negatively predicted some of the ratings of public speaking performance. The SSRS scores negatively predicted the tongue twister task performance indicators of accuracy rate and number of tongue twisters correctly repeated while positively predicting the disfluency indicators of long pauses.

The SSRS offers a new method for assessing the predisposition to consciously control and monitor speech. The predisposition to consciously control and monitor speech plays a role in speech performance and appears to be moderated by an individual’s level of trait social anxiety. Moreover, the SSRS provides a foundation to further develop new diagnostic tools for speech–language pathologists to evaluate posttherapy outcomes and facilitate clients’ speech skill acquisition.

    Research areas

  • conscious monitoring and control of speech, speech performance, scale development, reinvestment theory, trait social anxiety