The pervasive design for private and public transportation
Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis
Related Research Unit(s)
Throughout these years, industries and researchers devoted their efforts to develop the pervasive system for public transportation. Rapid Transit System (RTS) is the most typical example of pervasive public transportation. Generally, it is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with high capacity and frequency. To achieve the above missions, RTSs are expected to operate with fully automatic signal and control system and self navigation; these are the next milestones of pervasive RTS. Apart from RTS, air transport is also benefited from the development of pervasive computing. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a necessity for many parts of daily operations and marketing of the airline industries. For daily operation, airport has adopted the latest data mining technology in flight planning in order to maximize the efficiency while airlines increase their profit by using the computerized yield management program. By embedding 50 microprocessors, pervasive computing enhances the security and safety of automobile. Such pervasive design would be used in the future development of Electric Vehicle (EV). To maximize the use of pervasive computing in transportation systems, this study focuses on the pervasive designs of RTS parking system, silent message broadcast system for airport and charging system for EV. The development of EV has been considered as major direction for private transportation. Unfortunately, the ever increasing EV further increases the demand of the charging service. Also, the implementation of the EV charging system is not only a pure business matter but also related to the plan of the electricity supply. As a result, the widely adoption of EV has been identified as a major challenge for future development of smart grids. To overcome this challenge, a total solution for EV charging service platform (EVAMI) basing on power line and mobile broadband communication is investigated in this study. Generally, EVAMI includes an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Third Party Customer Service Platform which facilitates a single bill to be issued to EV owners. Hence, EV owners understand their energy usage and thus may perform energy saving activity efficiently. In order to enable the mobility of end user, Mobile Broadband Network (MBN) is adopted by the EVAMI and so the congestion control of MBN also discussed in this study. The investigation of MBN is initialized by exploring the Call/Connection Admission Control (CAC) design of different generations of mobile network which are supporting multiple applications in a single network with specific Quality of Service (QoS) requirement. A CAC scheme with multiple threshold bandwidth reservation approach is developed and customized designs for both 3.5G and mobile Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) has been discussed. Nevertheless, the quantity of threshold affects network performance as well as QoS of each service class significantly. Hence, a brand new topic, threshold management, is proposed to investigate the relationship between service classes, threshold quantity and network performance among different generation of MBN. The finding of this study can be applied to any multi-service networks such as WiMAX and Long Term Evolution (LTE). For the pervasive public transport aspect, the investigation is initiated by the mobility study and design of the wireless sensor network. To support mobile application, address timer and mobile application profile is developed in this study. By supporting mobility, airport silent message broadcast system and parking system for RTS are inspired. A novel silent message broadcast system, namely ZigBee Reminder System, embedded with a new mobile application profile is proposed. This system enables the mobility of ZigBee devices. The usage, the architecture and the mobility framework are discussed in details. It is evaluated that the new algorithm offers good efficiency and thus resulting in low management cost. A case study based on the Hong Kong International Airport is also presented and findings are given. This investigation reveals that the developed mobile application profile offers promising value-added services for many potential ZigBee applications. Last but not least, a self-corrective Light Railway Vehicle Parking System (LRVPS) incorporating a Bayesian Introspective Location Estimator (BILE), for positioning and location tracking, is proposed after enabling the mobility of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The smart LRVPS evolutes the Light Railway Vehicle Parking System by enabling a two-way data exchange between tags and readers. The BILE estimates the vehicle position by using an active RFID self-corrective RSS-based positioning algorithm to refine the location tracking using a newly developed Self Correction (SC) algorithm. The SC has improved the system error by 20% maximum and the system accuracy to ±3.5%. The system has been successfully tried in the Light Rail System in Hong Kong.
- Ubiquitous computing, Transportation, Data processing, Automation