Standardized IoT Strategies for Smart City Applications


Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date19 Jun 2023


The construction of Smart City aims to design and implement a series of intelligent applications, infrastructures, solutions, and strategies with the advance of state-of-art techniques. The advent of Smart City development will markedly enhance economic activity, foster sustainable environments, and positively impact the quality of citizens' lives. The Internet of Things (IoT), a key technique in Smart City development, forms a network connecting all "things", thereby serving as a crucial bridge within and between intelligent applications. As Smart City development progresses, the number of IoT sensors is expected to rise into the hundreds or thousands of billions. This growth introduces a new challenge: the scientific evaluation and comparison of the performance of various IoT solutions with differing configurations across a multitude of applications. Such a situation creates a dilemma for users in selecting the best technology options. Additionally, developers and manufacturers grapple with identifying the strengths and weaknesses of their products amidst stiff competition. This struggle stems from the lack of relative standards and strategies for evaluating IoT solutions, highlighting an urgent need for standardization in IoT strategies for Smart City applications. Recently, IEEE 2668, a global standard aimed at quantitatively evaluating IoT maturity for any IoT-related applications, was introduced. However, being a new standard, it has research gaps that need to be addressed. Challenges have arisen regarding its design direction, methodology improvement, scenario application, and area unification. In response to these challenges and questions, this thesis is dedicated to the development of standardized IoT strategies for Smart City applications, making the following four contributions.

The first contribution is the development of a Standardized IoT Anti-CoronavirusDisease-2019 (Anti-COVID-19) Quarantine Strategy for a Smart Economy: the QDex Evaluated Dynamic Geofencing (QEDG). This is a standardized IoT strategy tailored for epidemic control within a Smart City framework. This strategy first proposes an Optimized Dynamic Geofencing (ODG) approach, aimed at balancing epidemic control with economic recovery. It formulates two goals: minimizing transmission risk and maximizing active profit, which represent two conflicting demands. The biological status of quarantined individuals is incorporated into these objectives, allowing adaptive adjustment of the resultant trade-off, namely the geofencing size. Consequently, this strategy is superior to others in achieving a balanced trade-off while also implementing adaptive monitoring. However, the non-standardized dynamic geofencing strategy, ODG, lacks the ability to determine suitable IoT configurations for different scenarios. Therefore, within the standardized ODG, a performance-scoring quarantine index, known as QDex, is introduced. This index provides guidance by quantitatively evaluating the IoT performance and other features associated with dynamic geofencing, forming the foundation of QEDG. With QEDG, a desirable balance between epidemic control and economic resumption can be achieved, contributing significantly to the smart economy. Moreover, QEDG demonstrates how to design new research directions in accordance with IEEE 2668.

The second contribution is the Standardized IoT Risk Analysis Strategy for Smart Living: Adaptively Quantitative Risk Analysis Strategy (AQRAS). This approach integrates the System Theoretical Process Analysis (STPA) and the IEEE 2668 framework to determine and analyze risks in the elevator system using a Safety Index (SDex), derived from IoT network measurements. Notably, AQRAS's integration with STPA enables better identification of key assessment features through comprehensive and systematic analysis of interactions among system components. Additionally, complex network methodologies help to pinpoint relationships among risk features and identify components most susceptible to risk. Consequently, effective countermeasures can be formulated to mitigate these risks. AQRAS allows users to quantify elevator risk and undertake adaptive maintenance, contributing to safer, smarter living environments. Furthermore, this approach demonstrates an advanced application of the IEEE 2668 framework.

The third contribution is the Standardized IoT Battery System Evaluation Strategy for Smart Mobility: Smart Battery Management System Evaluation Strategy (SBMSES). It implements the IEEE 2668 compatible evaluation of the IoT-based smart battery management system. The batteries are widely used in electric vehicles, autonomous vehicles, etc., which are common scenarios in smart mobility. In the field of battery monitoring, multiple works have been presented to monitor battery status, such as temperature, state of charge, etc. However, such strategies lack the consideration of communication features in SBMS, without standardization. The IEEE 2668 compatible SBMS-ES is thus proposed to evaluate the SBMS in terms of both the wireless environment and battery features, regarding the scenario demands. By evaluating the performance of candidates, the applicability of IoT solutions in SBMS can be measured. The best practice can thus be achieved with SBMS-ES. The inadequacy of SBMS can also be detected for further improvement, which is beneficial for smart mobility. The SBMS-ES has been a typical exampleofr the incorporation of IEEE 2668 in IoT-related solutions.

The fourth contribution is the Standardized IoT Anti-Radiation Strategy for Smart People: Non-ionizing Radiation Safety Index (NRSDex). It is a novel, standardized strategy for assessing the safety of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) from IoT devices, harmonizing existing global standards. Given that NIR poses potential health risks, its study is highly pertinent to smart living applications. NRSDex first evaluates discrepancies among worldwide NIR standards, then offers a unified, quantitative safety assessment that resolves these conflicting standards. Consequently, it delivers an accessible, quantified safety index that assists the public in understanding the level of NIR risk. Furthermore, NRSDex identifies specific inadequacies in evaluated IoT products, guiding developers to improve these products, thereby benefiting the consumer and the advancement of safe, smart living applications. NRSDex stands as a significant milestone in unifying diverse standards within a given domain.

In summary, these innovative contributions utilize or refer to the IEEE 2668 standard to design standardized IoT strategies, covering four pivotal Smart City dimensions - smart economy, smart living, smart mobility, and smart people. The novel strategies introduced provide benefits to these areas and underscore the importance of standardizing IoT strategies to better understand and promote IoT characteristics. These novel guidelines or schemes contribute to the advancement of Smart City applications, offering users a more comprehensive and transparent understanding of the applicability of various IoT strategies. For developers and manufacturers, these contributions highlight the need to meet diverse IoT requirements across a range of scenarios, aligning more closely with market demands. Furthermore, they provide direction on how to improve design methodologies, apply these strategies in various scenarios, and unify guidelines within the framework of IEEE 2668, thereby paving the way for future developments related to this standard.