Effect of Cyber-life-interruption and Cyberloafing on Employee Organization-based Self-esteem, Emotional Exhaustion and Job Performance

網絡打擾與網絡閒逛對僱員的組織自尊、情緒疲憊和工作表現的影響

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

View graph of relations

Author(s)

Related Research Unit(s)

Detail(s)

Awarding Institution
Supervisors/Advisors
Award date6 Aug 2020

Abstract

Latest advances in Information Communication Technology (ICT) enables employees to engage in nonwork-related activities during working hours using ICT (aka cyberloafing) and to work during non-working hours using ICT (aka cyber-life-interruption) flexibly. Despite the ubiquity of these activities, people perceive them differently. Some people perceive them as burden that threatens their wellbeing and work-related outcomes, whereas others believe that they can help them enhance productivity and work-life balance. Much research has emerged to study the effects of cyberloafing and cyber-life-interruption on employee wellbeing and work-related outcomes. However, the inconsistent results prevent organizations and policy makers from intervening and regulating the situation. Therefore, this research examined this subject from two perspectives via two related studies in order to comprehend the mechanism and explore the possible solutions to minimize the negative impacts, and ultimately, enhance personal and organizational outcomes.

Study 1 focused on the effects of cyber-life-interruption on job performance and how the relationship is mediated by the three identified stress responses to cyber-life-interruption. Systematic analysis to obtain a more holistic view is lacking, and cyber-life-interruption is rarely conceptualized in the extant literature. This study may be the first to conceptualize the terminology of cyber-life-interruption and establish a theoretical framework to explain the relationships between cyber-life-interruption, the three proposed mediators, and the three different aspects of job performance. First, cyber-life-interruption was conceptualized in the work environment structure context. Then, self-regulatory mechanisms were utilized to assess how different work environment structure attributes of cyber-life-interruption shape employee reactions, which subsequently influence job performance. Based on the conceptualization of cyber-life-interruption, three stress responses were identified: organization-based self-esteem, work-related emotional exhaustion, and nonwork-related emotional exhaustion. Moreover, with reference to the stress transmission process, it was suggested that stress responses mediate the relationships between cyber-life-interruption and specific aspects of job performance: in-role job performance, organizational citizenship behaviors that benefit individuals, and organizational citizenship behaviors that benefit organizations. Empirical results showed that the effects of cyber-life-interruption on different aspects of job performance were mediated by the stress responses of the employees. Specifically, the mediating effects of organization-based self-esteem amplified the direct positive effects of cyber-life-interruption on organizational citizenship behaviors that benefit individuals. In addition, work-related emotional exhaustion fully and negatively mediated the relationship between cyber-life-interruption and organizational citizenship behaviors that benefit organizations. Finally, the mediating effect of nonwork-related emotional exhaustion buffered the direct positive effect of cyber-life-interruption on in-role job performance. This study provides a conceptualization of cyber-life-interruption that has important implications for understanding and effectively managing this new phenomenon introduced by ICT.

Study 2 focused on the individual positive and negative impacts of cyberloafing and cyber-life-interruption and their mutually complementary effect on work- and nonwork-related emotional exhaustion. Prior research has emphasized the dark sides of cyberloafing and cyber-life-interruption and has rarely considered them on the same dimension. This study extends prior literature to examine employee perceptions of cyberloafing and cyber-life-interruption in a holistic manner. It may also be the first to prove that the interaction between cyberloafing and cyber-life-interruption can be the stress management tool to deal with employee emotional exhaustion. Firstly, attribution theory and role theory were utilized to suggest the negative impacts of cyberloafing and cyber-life-interruption on work- and nonwork-related emotional exhaustion. Next, border theory, personal resource allocation framework, and work–family positive spillover framework were employed to suggest the positive impacts of cyberloafing and cyber-life-interruption on nonwork- and work-related emotional exhaustion. Further, the theory of preventive stress management was used as a basis, then, different perspectives of conservation of resources theory were drawn upon, and the interaction between cyberloafing and cyber-life-interruption was considered as a stress management tool for mitigating negative stress responses. The results of a quantitative survey showed that individually both cyberloafing and cyber-life-interruption intensified work- and nonwork-related emotional exhaustion. Nevertheless, the interaction between cyberloafing and cyber-life-interruption could change the strength of the original relationship between cyber-life-interruption and nonwork-related emotional exhaustion. The results also demonstrated that when both cyber-life-interruption and cyberloafing were at high levels, both work- and nonwork-related emotional exhaustion were minimized. This study also extends the research on addressing mental health issues experienced by employees by using behavioral intervention technologies.

    Research areas

  • Information Communication Technology, Life-interruption, Cyberloafing, Job performance, Organization-based Self-esteem (OBSE), Emotional exhaustion