ABO Blood Donation Deviation Associated with Human Migration


Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date16 Mar 2024


Regional blood centers play an essential role in ensuring adequate blood supply to cater to the healthcare demands of diverse populations. Many blood centers encounter blood shortages. However, some institutions in areas with large-scale human migration mainly suffer from temporary deficits or surpluses of specific ABO blood groups, which prompts either enhanced or suspended donations from specific ABO blood donors. Despite the prevalence of this issue, the complex mechanisms behind it still need to be clarified. Our study focuses on Shenzhen, a city marked by significant human migration from other places in China, experiencing enhanced O blood donations and suspended AB blood donations, which might be associated with human migration. From 1998 to 2018, Shenzhen witnessed a fourfold increase in total blood donations from 65,107 to 263,159 units, with a blood group breakdown of 40.02% O, 28.22% A, 24.49% B, and 7.28% AB. We conducted a daily analysis of the extreme-level blood donation of total and each blood group, noting high (> 95th percentile) and low (< 5th percentile) donation levels. We found that the monthly extreme blood donation frequency for total blood followed a normal distribution. Interestingly, only the monthly extreme blood donation of the A and B blood had a similar distribution, while O and AB showed deviations, which we characterized as 'blood donation deviation. Moreover, we built a model to evaluate the daily donation deviation for each blood group. We discovered that AB blood had an earlier deviation than A and B, followed by O blood. Furthermore, we explored potential factors driving blood donation deviation by analyzing donors' blood group distribution and donation patterns, revealing significant differences between migrant and local donors over 21 years. While locals and donors from Southern China contributed 55.41% of the blood donations, with a higher percentage of O blood (44.33%) and lower AB blood (5.95%), donors from Northern and Central China, who made up 44.59% of donations, exhibited a relatively lower O blood (34.3%) and higher AB blood (9.02%) contributions. Additionally, a higher re- donation rate was observed among Northern (21.26%) and Central (18.43%) donors compared to Southern (16.72%) donors. Our analysis suggests that these regional variances in blood group distribution and donation habits might explain the requirements for enhanced donations of O blood and suspended donations of AB blood. Predictions from our model correlated closely with the actual scenario, showing 1261 days of enhanced O-group donations and 341 days of suspended AB-group donations. Looking forward, we combined with time-series models (ARIMA, GREY, and PROPHET) and predicted that Shenzhen will mainly require an additional 350 units of O blood for 105 days per year, with no suspensions of donations needed until 2028. Taken together, our results suggest that regions with large-scale migration could encounter blood donation deviation if locals and migrants have different blood group distributions. Our findings also provide insights into precision blood donation in urbanizing migratory regions.

    Research areas

  • Blood Donation, Human Blood Group, City, Human Migration, Human Behavior