節儉、興業與國家建構:近代廣東的儲蓄存款(1908-1942)

Thrift, Economic Development and State Building: Savings Deposits in Modern Guangdong(1908-1942)

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date2 Nov 2023

Abstract

以往近代儲蓄的研究,一類是依託在金融、銀行史下作為附屬部分討論,另一類著重特定儲蓄類別或特定儲蓄機構的史實敘述。本文以觀念史為研究視角,將觀念史的研究思路運用在在前人鮮少關注的金融思想、金融活動——儲蓄上面。本文根據檔案資料、報刊雜誌,把視角放在1908-1942年代,以廣東地區為中心,探討近代金融儲蓄觀念的形成。本文發現,傳統存款行為即私人窖藏和機構存放,體現了私人信任和機構信任的性質。經濟模式轉型下出現的弊案,衝擊這些信任模式,同時近代銀行制度出現,「制度信任」開始構建。結果是傳統金融機構、組織被認為不合時宜,需要被改造成近代銀行。傳統存款行為下的「儲蓄」逐漸被視同為銀行儲蓄。近代金融儲蓄觀念與行為的形塑,實際上是在梁啟超等人對「新民」塑造背景下的回應。這一新觀念相繼融入了「節儉」、「興業」與「國家建構」的內涵。私人、家族行為轉變為個人行為,再向集體行為、國家行為發展。過程中體現了對近代金融模式的吸收、學習和重構。市場與政府在儲蓄場域的張弛,說明觀念形塑的複雜性。同時,本文釐清中日戰爭前廣東地區參加儲蓄的民眾身份與經濟條件,「儲戶」在前人的研究中常語焉不詳。

本文說明學界需要用全面且較長時段的視角去評估「近代儲蓄」。同時,無論是市場調節還是政府調控,都需要關注到個體的需求。對儲蓄群體的經濟力考察也有助於了解近代觀念出現下的新行為。由於儲蓄持份者有民眾、銀行、商業組織、政府,儲蓄也可以作為一種思路去研究中國近代史。
Academic research on modern savings deposits can be divided into two categories. One is to use savings and deposits as a quantitative analysis angle for studying banking history and economic history, and the other is to study the development history of a specific type of savings or a single savings institution. The perspective of the history of ideas was rarely used in the research of financial thought and financial activities. This research takes the history of ideas as the perspective to study modern financial savings. Based on archival materials, newspapers and magazines, this research focuses on Guangdong, China from 1908 to 1942, and discusses the formation of the idea of modern financial savings. The research finds that traditional deposit behaviors, namely private hoarding and institutional savings, reflect the nature of private and institutional trust. The abuses that emerged under the transformation of the economic model. The transformation impacted these trust models. At the same time, the modern banking system and institution emerged, and “Institutional Trust” began to be built. The result was that modernists considered traditional financial institutions and organizations outdated and needed to be transformed into modern banks. The “Savings” was gradually regarded as modern bank savings. The shaping of the idea and the behavior in modern financial savings were measurements under the background of Liang Qichao and others’ shaping the “New People”(新民). The idea of modern financial savings was gradually integrated into the connotations of “Thrift”, “Economic Development” and “State Building”. Private and Family behaviors (Traditional Savings) had transformed into individual behaviors (Modern Financial Savings), then developed into collective and state behaviors. The process embodies the absorption, study, and reconstruction of the idea of modern financial model. The relaxation of the market and the government in the field of savings shows the complexity of idea shaping. Besides, this research clarifies the economic conditions of the people who participated in savings in Guangdong before the Sino-Japanese War. The identity and economic conditions of savers in the republican China era were often unclear in previous academic studies.

This research shows that the academia needs to evaluate “modern savings” from a comprehensive and long-term (longue durée) perspective. At the same time, whether it is market or government direction, it is necessary to pay attention to the needs and rights of individuals. The investigation of the economic conditions of savers is also helpful in understanding the new behaviors under the emergence of modern ideas. Since savings stakeholders include the public, banks, business organizations, and the government, savings can be regarded as a method to study modern Chinese history.

    Research areas

  • Savings, the History of Ideas, Economic activity, Banks, Social and Economic History