為什麼中國毒品犯罪越來越多?-- 基於 Y 省的毒品犯罪司法經驗研究

Why Chinese Drug Crime is Becoming More and More? -- Based on the Research of Drug Crimes Judicial Experience of Y Province

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date30 Mar 2017

Abstract

不同於學界和實務界的主流觀點,對於解釋中國毒品犯罪為什麼越來越多,論文提出大膽的假設和預判,即這一嚴重後果與毒品犯罪刑罰威懾力不足之間可能存在相關性。國家政策(包括立法)層面一直堅持嚴禁毒品和嚴打毒品犯罪,期望通過嚴刑峻法來遏制甚至消滅毒品犯罪。但是,動態的毒品犯罪司法並沒有完全實現靜態、立法上的毒品犯罪刑法嚴厲性,實際的毒品犯罪刑罰威懾力不足,刑罰的一般預防和特殊預防功能無從發揮,毒品犯罪越來越多的後果得以發生。

論文從宏觀和微觀兩個層面對於毒品犯罪刑罰威懾力不足進行論證。在中國成文法語境下,毒品犯罪刑法的實施和執行受到最高法院司法政策的影響。而在現行政法體制下,出於對國家政治、政策、法治等多種因素的考量和多種力量的博弈,毒品犯罪司法政策呈現出“從嚴”到“輕緩”的流變性以及表面上“從嚴”而實際上“從輕”的兩面性,而不是不折不扣地、完全地執行毒品犯罪刑法的嚴厲性。只有這樣做,最高法院不僅完成不同時期的政治任務,而且維護其最高法院的法治功能。基於對毒品犯罪司法政策的流變與毒品犯罪數量變動態勢之間關係的描述與分析,論文初步認為,從宏觀上判斷,毒品犯罪刑法上的嚴厲性經過司法政策之手打了折扣,毒品犯罪刑罰威懾力遭到削弱和虛置。

為從微觀和實證上證成上述假設和判斷,論文以Y 省法院審理的毒品犯罪案件為研究樣本,圍繞“Y 省運輸毒品罪案件為什麼越來越多?”這一重大發現,論文一方面深入到法院毒品犯罪案件審理程式內部,從定罪和量刑兩個方面,對毒品犯罪刑罰如何具體適用到犯罪人進行系統、全面的考察和分析,另一方面對毒品犯罪人的刑罰反應進行“深描”和觀察,進一步發現運輸毒品犯罪的刑罰確定性、嚴厲性和公正性均遭受不同程度的破壞和削弱,刑罰威懾效應尚未有效形成。在此基礎上,論文更新和補充了傳統刑罰威懾效應理論,增進了對刑罰威懾效應發揮條件及機制的再認識。

刑罰威懾效應機制的形成涉及刑罰確定性、及時性和公正性等條件的成就和滿足。由於對毒品犯罪規律的無知,造成毒品犯罪刑罰確定性嚴重不足;由於對毒品犯罪“重刑率”誤解,減弱或虛置毒品犯罪刑罰嚴厲性;由於要滿足其他政治目標,人為編制各種情節來減輕毒品犯罪刑罰,損害了刑罰公正性。一旦毒品犯罪刑法規制運用到社會中,落實到具體案件、具體個人,立法上刑罰的嚴厲性將發生變化。論文通過Y 省運輸毒品犯罪的個案研究,辨析中國毒品犯罪越來越嚴重這一命題的真偽,分析、查找毒品犯罪刑罰威懾力不足的具體表徵及其原因,並結合新發現的刑罰威懾觀點,對當下中國法院毒品犯罪治理運作不靈的現狀,提出建設性的建議和對策。更為重要的是,本文毒品犯罪經驗研究為觀察、反思法律的本質和功能、轉型期中國司法的實際運作狀況和未來中國法治建設提供了一個很好的平臺。
Different from dominant views in academic and practical circles, the dissertation presents a bold assumption and anticipation over explaining why drug crimes are increasingly severe in China, that is, this serious consequence may be related to insufficient deterrence of penalty against drug crimes. China has insisted that drugs should be prohibited and drug crimes should be cracked down at the policy level (including legislation), expecting to curb or even eliminate drug crimes through strict laws. However, dynamic drug criminal justice has not yet totally realized severity of drug criminal laws statically and legislatively, coupled with insufficient deterrent force against actual drug criminal penalty and unavailable general and special prevention functions of criminal penalty, so there is the fact that drug crimes are getting more severe.

The argument in this dissertation for insufficient deterrence of penalty against drug crimes goes from both macro and micro levels. In the context of statutory laws in China, implementation and enforcement of drug criminal laws are under the influence of juridical policy of the Supreme Court. Under the current judicial structure, on account of the state politics, policies, legal environment and other factors as well as struggle among different forces, the criminal judicial policy for drug crimes is characterized with evolution from “severity” to “leniency” and two-sidedness with “punish with severity” on the surface but “punish with leniently” in fact, instead of fully performing severity of the criminal law against drug crimes to the letter. Only by doing so, will the Supreme Court accomplish political tasks in different periods while maintaining its function in the rule of law. Based on description and analysis of the relationship between evolution of the criminal judicial policy for drug crimes and changes in the number of drug crimes, it is initially thought in the dissertation that, from the macro perspective, severity of drug criminal laws is discounted by hand of justice policy, thus weakening and distracting deterrence of penalty against drug crimes.

In order to justify the above assumptions and judgments from the micro and empirical perspective, this dissertation takes drug criminal cases dealt with by courts in Y province as the study sample. Around the important discovery of “why cases on crimes of transporting drugs in Y province are getting more severe?”, this dissertation has a deep investigation into drug crimes trial procedures in courts to make a systematic observation and comprehensive analysis over how drug crime penalty is applied specifically to drug criminals from conviction and penal discretion, and by making “thick description” and observation of penalty reactions of drug criminals, the dissertation further discovers that the certainty, severity and impartiality of penalty against drug criminals are damaged and weakened by different degrees, and the deterrent effectiveness of penalty has not yet come into shape. On this basis, this dissertation updates and supplements the traditional theories of deterrence effects of penalty, and enhances further understanding of conditions and mechanisms for the deterrent effectiveness of penalty to come into play.