立案登記制的多維檢視與完善進路 — 基於H省HD市司法實踐的實証考察

A Multidimensional Analysis of Case-Filing Registration System and Some Perfecting Suggestions --- Empirical Study of Judicial Practice in HD City of H Province

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date7 Nov 2019

Abstract

2015 年5 月1 日,立案登记制在我国正式实施。阻碍立案的制度门槛被拆除,备受困扰的“立案难”得到有效缓解。但起诉条件尚未修订、立案监督机制缺位、司法在解纷中的功能局限、立案考评机制不完善等因素,导致形式审查未能实际贯彻,存在变相“立案难”以及诉前调解形式化、强制网上立案、滥诉行为增加、等待时间过长等问题。结合我国司法国情,参考域外民事诉讼要件理论,修订起诉条件、加强完善多元解纷机制、整合审前程序、规制滥诉行为、落实立案监督、完善考评机制、借助互联网构建立案新模式。
文章除绪论之外,共有五章:

绪论:本章从选题背景与意义、文献综述、主要研究方法、田野工作地点、论文结构、创新点等方面对本文做大致概述,说明论文主旨之所在。

第一章立案登记制实施前后的基本图景。本章从我国立案制度的历史沿革谈起,讲到立案登记制改革的社会背景,即对“社会矛盾纠纷的变迁”、“变迁对立案登记制改革的挑战”和“司法解纷功能的局限”进行内外扫描,厘清改革工作面临的局势和问题,通过登记制实施前后立案现状及问题的对比,展示审查制与登记制两种立案制度存在的价值。

第二章立案登记制理论检视和域外观照。本章从比较法的视角,对诉、诉权、诉的利益、诉讼标的、当事人适格等理论作了梳理,为立案登记制改革涉及的起诉要件、诉讼要件、权利保护要件等诸多程序性、实体性要件的重构提供理论铺垫。通过与域外立案制度的对比,给我国立案制度带来的启发,并阐述了我国国情下的立案登记制与域外立案登记制的本质区别。

第三章立案登记制的社会视角。本章从政治、经济、文化等不同社会视角审视立案登记制,旨在揭示我们一定要在社会的政治体系中来考虑法院应该能够受理和解决什么样的纠纷。任何一种制度的建立都脱离不了本国的文化、政治、经济生态环境,法院只是正义的最后一道防线。因此,立案登记制下的司法救济仅是社会综合治理中的一种途径,特别是在中国必定要为社会政治体系服务。

第四章立案登记制的主体视角。本章分别从法官、律师、当事人的视角进入对立案登记制的解读,并展示在案件趋向饱和状态下,法官采取的策略性技巧以及律师与当事人对立案登记制的评价并为进入司法大门采取的博弈。

第五章立案登记制的完善与未来发展。本章从修订起诉条件、健全诉与非诉衔接机制和多元解纷机制、整合完善审前程序、加强对滥诉行为的规制、借助互联网构建立案新模式、细化落实责任追责、完善立案登记考评机制等制度层面,对制度提出了完善建议。
The case-filing registration system was officially put into force in China on May 1st, 2015. The institutional barriers to case filing were dismantled, and the harried “case-filing difficulties”was basically solved. However, the unrevised prosecution conditions, the lack of the case-filing supervisory mechanism, the functional limitations of judicature in resolving disputes, the imperfect case-filing evaluation mechanism, and other factors have lead to the failure of the formal examination to be implemented in practice, and the problems such as the disguised “case-filing difficulties”and formalization of pre-litigation mediation, the forced online case-filing, the increased rampant litigation and the long-waiting-time still exist. Based on the civil litigation structure and the litigation elements theory of the civil law system, This article combines Chinese judicial practice, revises the prosecution conditions, improves the multiple dispute resolution mechanism, integrates the pre-trial procedures, regulates the rampant litigation acts, implements the case-filing supervision, improves the evaluation mechanism, and establishes the new case-filing mode with the help of the Internet.

In addition to the Introduction, this paper has five chapters:

Introduction: This chapter makes a general overview of this paper from the aspects such as the background and significance of the subject, the literature review, the major research direction, the place for fieldwork, the paper structure and the innovation points, in order to explain the theme of this paper.

Chapter One: The basic panorama before and after the implementation of the case-filing registration system. This chapter starts from the historical evolution of China’s case-filing system, and introduces the social background of the case-filing registration system reform; that is, the internal and external scanning of the “changes in social contradictions and disputes”, the “challenge of the changes to the reform of the case-filing registration system” and the “limitation of the judicial dispute resolution function”. Then it clarifies the situation and problem facing the reform work and demonstrates the value of the existence of the examination system and registration system, through the comparison of the present situation and problems of case-filing before and after the implementation of the registration system.

Chapter Two: Theoretical review and extraterritorial observation of the case-filing registration system. From the perspective of comparative law, this chapter sorts out the theories of lawsuit and right of action, interest of suit, object of action, qualification of litigant, etc., and provides a theoretical foundation for the reconstruction of many procedural and substantive elements, such as the sue elements, the litigation elements and the elements of the rights protection involved in the reform of the case-filing registration system. Through the inspiration bringing to our country’s case-filing system by the comparison with the overseas case-filing system, this paper also illuminates the essential differences between the case-filing registration system under China’s national situation and the overseas case-filing system.

Chapter Three: This chapter examines the case-filing registration system from politics, economy, culture and other social perspectives, in order to reveal that we have to study and understand in the context of the social structure and political systems, and the kind of disputes are the courts fit for and able to accept and handle. The establishment of any system cannot be separated from the cultural, political, economic, and ecological environment of the country, and the court is just the last line of defense for justice. Therefore, the judicial relief under the case-filing registration system is only one way of the comprehensive social governance, which, especially in China, must serve the sociopolitical system.

Chapter Four: The examination of different subjects under the case-filing registration system. This chapter, respectively from the perspectives of the judge, lawyer, and the client enters into the interpretation of the case-filing registration system and demonstrates the strategic skills adopted by the judge, the lawyer and client’s evaluation for the case-filing registration system, and the game between them for entering the judicial gate.

Chapter Five: Improvement and future development of the case-filing registration system. This chapter puts forward perfecting suggestion to the system from the institutional aspects of revising the prosecution conditions, improving the cohesive mechanism and multiple resolution mechanism between litigation and non-litigation, integrating and improving the pre-trial procedures, strengthening the regulation of rampant litigation, constructing the new case-filing mode with the help of the Internet, refining and implementing responsible accountability and improving the evaluation system of case-filing registration.

    Research areas

  • Case-filing registration system, Case-filing review system, Judicial reform