企業信息系統深度使用對員工離職傾向與工作投入的影響 - 以服務行業為例

The Impact of Deeply Integrated Enterprise IT System on Employee's Turnover Intention and Work Engagement - Take Service Industry as an Example

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Author(s)

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Awarding Institution
Supervisors/Advisors
  • Cheng Zhang (External person) (External Supervisor)
  • Kai H. LIM (Supervisor)
Award date13 Jul 2022

Abstract

對於服務行業來說,員工是最重要的戰略資源,而恰恰在這個行業中,一線員工的流失率是很嚴重的問題。這一點在新生代員工中體現的更為明顯,數據顯示新生代員工(1990年後出生員工)相比70後80後員工在工作態度上有較大的不同,如離職率高出5%以上(楊漫等,2014)。而這也對以年輕員工為主的部分服務型企業的治理能力(在本研究中即挽留員工的能力)提出了很高的要求。

另一方面,隨著互聯網技術的發展,資訊技術在服務行業中已經成為最重要的工具之一。對顧客,IT系統往往能幫助實現定制化的客戶服務,因此越來越多的服務行業開始重視資訊技術在客戶服務中的作用。而對於企業內的員工,有研究表明資訊技術能幫助一線員工提高工作滿意度和工作表現。因此,在組織驅動,顧客要求以及自身追求下,資訊技術越來越深入到服務行業一線員工的日常工作中。因此研究資訊系統在服務行業員工日常工作中發揮的作用是具有很高的實踐與理論價值的。

然而,梳理相關領域文獻,儘管IS(Information Systems)領域對IT的商業價值與其對組織表現的影響很關注,但仍僅停留在:1)對資訊技術的商業價值的研究; 2)資訊技術對組織表現的影響。對於具體到圍繞員工個人層面的研究,主要討論員工對IT的接受,抗拒,持續使用傾向等IT態度方面的研究(如經典的TAM, UTAUT模型等等)。 目前尚未有研究注意到IT究竟:(1)如何深入影響服務行業員工的日常工作;(2)在此基礎上,IT在個人層面上究竟如何改變了工作動力,離職傾向等重要工作後果。而這些,恰恰是企業最關心的問題。

基於以上問題,本文回顧了相應文獻,以組織行為學領域的工作特徵理論和心理學的ERG理論為基礎,結合資訊系統領域相關視角,以員工個人為研究層面,研究對服務行業員工來說,IT系統與日常工作的深度結合對重要的工作後果(即離職傾向與工作投入)的影響機制。提出對於服務行業員工來說,IT系統與工作的結合可被整合為兩個方面:一方面是較為傳統的功能與資源層面上的IT支持,即IT系統幫助員工完成日常任務的程度;另一個方面為更切合服務行業員工需求的IT自主,即IT系統允許員工自由地和獨立地安排工作進度和具體實施方式的程度。同時引進ERG理論模型中的存在、關聯、成長需求滿足三個構念,探討IT支持與自主對員工需求滿足的影響,進而討論三個需求滿足對重要工作後果的影響。在此基礎上提出理論模型與假設。在實證研究部分,本文通過實地調研和問卷調查進行了數據收集,使用了經典的結構方程模型分析方法,具體採用SPSS與Stata SEM Builder進行數據統計分析,假設驗證。

本文的主要研究結論與創新點為:
第一,IT支持能提高員工的各項需求滿足,此外IT自主主要提高員工的成長需求滿足。這一方面肯定了對於部分服務型企業,IT確實與員工的日常工作深入結合,改變了員工的工作本質,因為只有在此基礎上,IT才能影響較高層次的員工個人層面的構念如需求滿足;另一方面,本文在傳統的IS領域關注的IT功能性作用以外,成功發現了IT對員工的自主性這方面的賦能,能有效提高員工的成長需求滿足,而這也是重要工作後果如離職傾向和工作參與的重要前提。

第二,對於研究覆蓋的管理層員工來說,IT自主性正向調節IT给于的支持對成長需求滿足的正向作用。換句話說,對這部分員工,當IT自主性高時, IT支持對成長需求滿足的正向作用更強。也就是說實踐中,企業應更多的考慮通過IT向管理層員工提供工作自主,因為管理層從高IT自主和高IT支持中收穫的是“1+1>2”的效果。

第三,本研究發現,對於心理學領域源遠流長的ERG理論,存在需求對重要工作後果無顯著影響,而關聯需求和成長需求能顯著影響員工的離職傾向和工作投入。因此儘管實踐中很多企業在招聘中把員工的物質(即存在)需求滿足列為首要考慮目標,然而根據實證研究結果,員工更多的看重她是否在組織中建立了足夠的聯繫、感到被接納以及是否能在現有崗位上看到成長空間。這也啟示了現實中的企業管理者,在提供員工足夠的報酬以外,提供良好的企業人際氛圍和成長空間也是很重要的。也許未來,這將成為企業在“追求”優質員工時的制勝法寶。
Human is the critical strategic resources in service industry, but in the service industry, the turnover rate of frontline employees is high. This phenomenon is especially common within the younger generation. This shows that the work attitudes are quite different between the new generation (born in the 1990s) and the older generation born in the 1970s and 1980s. For example, the turnover rate of the former is 5% higher than the latter (Yangman,2014). This also places great demands on the governance ability (i.e., the ability to retain employees in this study) of service enterprises dominated by young employees.

On the other hand, information technology has become one of the most important tools in the service industry, with the development of the Internet, for customers, IT can help companies achieve customized services. Therefore, more and more service companies begin to focus on the role of IT. For employees, IT improves their job satisfaction and performance, especially for frontline employees. Therefore, we seek to answer whether and how IT can be embedded in the work of the service frontline employees to reduce turnover intention. It is a valuable question for both practice and theory.

However, after a comprehensive review of relevant literature, although it is an important topic to address a practical problem, Information Systems (IS) research is stagnating in two aspects: first is on its commercial value; second is on its effect on work performance of an organization. At the individual level, IS literature has been predominately focusing on users’ IT acceptance, rejection, sustainable application, etc., (such the traditional TAM, UTAUT model). To the best of our knowledge, there has been little research focuses on how IT affects the daily working of service employees, and how IT changes their work motivation, turnover intention, and other important work outcomes at the individual level. However, these are the most critical concerns for the service industry.

Based on the above problems, this study reviews relevant literature, takes the job characteristic model from OB (Organization Behavior) literature and ERG (Existence Relationship Growth) theory from psychology literature as the theoretical foundation, and combines insights from IS literature. This study aims at studying the underlying mechanism of whether and how IT affects these important work outcomes (i.e., turnover intention and job engagement) at the individual level. We propose that contemporary IS is embedded with daily work in two ways: First, IS provides supports work from a traditional resource perspective in such a way that IS can help employee to complete their daily work. Second, IS can provide autonomy to employees of the service industry, which means IT could enables employees to arrange their work independently, freely leading to a sense autonomy on the part of employees. Building on ERG theory, we propose that there are three important needs: existence, relatedness, and growth. We further explore the effects of IT supports and IT autonomy on these three needs satisfaction and how these needs satisfaction affects important work outcomes. Empirically, this paper collects data through a field survey in a company, and employs the classical structural equation modeling method, and applies the SPSS and Stata SEM Builder to perform the statistical analyses and test our hypothesis. This study also conducts informal interviews as a complement to the field survey.

Key conclusions and innovations:
Firstly, our results show that IT support can contribute to all three needs satisfaction, and IT autonomy can also meet employees' growth needs. On the one hand, our results show that IT is well integrated into the daily work of most of the service industry and changes the essence of employees’ work in the service industry. Only on this base, IT could influence need satisfactions. On the other hand, this paper identifies that IT provided/enabled autonomy can improve employees’ growth need satisfaction; this is also the most important antecedent of important working outcomes, such as turnover intention and job engagement.

Secondly, for managerial employees, this study finds that IT provided/enabled autonomy can strengthen the impact of IT support on growth need satisfaction in such a way that the higher the IT provided/enabled autonomy, the more substantial the positive effect of IT support, and their growth need satisfaction is higher. When IT provided/enabled autonomy is low, IT support can only satisfy their growth need slightly even though the support itself is very high. This suggests that companies should rethink about the purpose of there is: on top of providing monitoring and control, their IS should be design in such a way to enable their employees to work on their own pace and way, because this will create the effect of one plus one larger than two by high IT support and IT autonomy.

Thirdly, this study finds that existence needs cannot influence important work outcomes, but relevance needs and growth needs can significantly affect employee turnover intention and job engagement. Therefore, although in practice, many companies put the material resource needs satisfaction (i.e., existence needs) of employees as the primary objective in recruitment and enticing potential employees, our results reveal that, employees pay more attention to whether they have established enough connections in the organization, whether they feel accepted and whether they can see the growth potential in current job position. This also enlightens the practitioners that besides providing adequate payment to employees, it is also essential to provide a good corporate interpersonal atmosphere and growth opportunities. Perhaps in the future, this will become a magic weapon for companies in pursuing high-quality employees.

    Research areas

  • IT autonomy, job characteristic model, ERG theory, turnover intention, service industry