我國互聯網互助保障平臺發展研究 ─ 以“康愛公社”為例

Research on the Development of China's Internet Mutual Assistance Platform - Evidence from "Kang'ai Commune"

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date27 Aug 2020

Abstract

互聯網互助保障平臺是互聯網大背景下相互保險的進一步發展。借助互聯網和協力廠商移動支付方式的興起,特別是“支付寶”等移動支付平臺在我國居民生活中的普及,“康愛公社”等大批互聯網互助保障平臺不斷湧現。各互助平臺用戶數量持續增長,行業逐漸壯大,互聯網互助保障因此成為了我國特有的一種相互保險形式,其作為商業保險、社會保險或醫療保險等傳統保險形式的補充,在完善我國社會保險體系、提升居民福利等方面都有潛在機會。同時,保監會等監管機構也對互聯網互助保障平臺高度關注和重視,頒佈了相應規章制度對相互保險組織的監督管理和規範發展給出了指導意見。基於互聯網互助保障平臺的發展壯大以及監管層對行業的關注和重視,本文研究我國互聯網互助保障平臺的發展,以“康愛公社”為例對互聯網互助保障平臺的發展現狀和潛在市場進行分析,以對互聯網互助保障平臺的未來發展和監管機構對行業的監管提供有益建議,也借此為學者們未來關於互聯網互助保障平臺的研究提供參考。

由於互聯網互助保障平臺是近期起源於我國的一種新型保險形式,學術界對互聯網互助保障行業的關注尚少。西方文獻中關於相互保險行業和眾籌模式的文獻為研究互聯網互助保障平臺提供了理論基礎,包括相互保險中涉及的逆向選擇、道德風險等問題(Smith and Stutzer, 1995; Guinnane and Streb, 2011),相互保險的特點(Bainbridge, 1952; Hansmann, 1985)以及眾籌模式的背景等,國內學者則多從規範研究的角度討論互聯網互助保障平臺的發展歷程等問題(孫瑞,2016;易輝和郝演,2016;王景和黃志勇,2017),少有文獻結合實證證據探討我國互聯網互助保障平臺的發展。

本文的研究主要從三個方面展開。首先,本文以我國最早的互聯網互助保障平臺“康愛公社”為切入點,基於“康愛公社”後臺採集的使用者資訊和對使用者的問卷調研資料,分析了互聯網互助保障平臺的使用者群體特徵;其次,借助針對居民參與互聯網互助保障平臺意願的隨機調研,我們進一步分析我國居民互聯網互助保險的參與意願及其影響因素,明確了行業的潛在使用者特徵,並基於其與現有使用者特徵的對比進一步提出了互聯網互助保障平臺未來可能的發展方向。最後,本文分析了互聯網互助保障平臺的運營模式,通過對互聯網互助保障平臺運營模式的概述及評價,本文總結了互聯網互助保障平臺運營模式的特點、優勢及其潛在缺陷,並提出對行業發展的一些看法。

基於以上研究分析,本文主要有以下發現:
第一,本文研究發現互聯網互助保障平臺的現有用戶多為受教育水準較低、社會保險和醫療保險等未能覆蓋且不具備傳統保險購買能力的低收入群體。從互聯網互助保障行業中的典型平臺“康愛公社”使用者資料來看,互聯網互助保障平臺的用戶多數居住在經濟發達程度較高省份,且以城鎮區域為主,女性略多於男性,年齡以中老年群體居多;在職業、教育程度和收入方面,其用戶群體中自由職業者最多,以初高中教育水準為主,且超過85%的用戶月收入低於5000元;同時,現有用戶的身體狀況整體良好,且有較強的運動、保健和保險意識。

第二,本文研究發現居民參與互聯網互助保障的意願受到其互聯網使用習慣和保險觀念及意識等一系列因素的影響。具體而言,所處地區的經濟發展水準和住地類型顯著影響居民的互聯網使用習慣,對微信等網络社交平臺使用越頻繁和對移動支付信任度越高的居民越傾向于參與互聯網互助保險;居民的保險意識和保險需求則受到年齡、收入、受教育程度及社會保險和醫療保險的參保水準等因素影響,在“社保”和“醫保”提供的保障度較低的居民中,收入水準和受教育程度越高,年齡越大,居民的保險意識和保險需求越強,參與互聯網互助保險的意願也更強;在“社保”和“醫保”提供的保障度較高時,居民整體參保互聯網互助保險的意願較低,但年齡和收入等個人特質不影響其參保意願。

第三,互聯網互助保障平臺依靠其通過平臺彙集用戶形成互助群體的特殊運營模式,實現了平臺成員之間的有效互助,同時兼具一定的公益性質。正是得益於其特殊的運營模式,互聯網互助保障相較于傳統保險公司的運營效率較高,且有效降低了保險費用,進而降低了保險准入門檻,讓更多有保險需求的人得以參與;同時,互聯網互助保障平臺打破了地域與時間限制,入社與理賠基本在網上進行,週期可控,捐助款的使用也不受限制;此外,互聯網互助保障平臺資訊較為透明,社員互動多,自然忠誠度也很高。但與此同時,我們也需意識到互聯網互助保障也面臨了一些新型風險,如整體抵禦風險能力不足、資金安全、虛假報案、審核不嚴等,因而未來需要部門有計劃有步驟地開展監管工作。

本文的主要貢獻在於:
首先,互聯網互助保險行業是互聯網背景下保險行業的新發展,也是近年才出現的新興行業,基於對互聯網互助保障行業用戶群體的分析,本文加深了我們對互聯網互助保障計畫的理解,更有利於厘清互聯網互助保障產品的定位和現有客戶群體,有助於行業從業者依據更為準確的產品定位進行產品影響和市場擴張,以服務更多的潛在使用者,提升保險參與度和覆蓋率,降低社會總體風險。

其次, 通過進一步的問卷調查分析,我們實證檢驗了影響居民參保互聯網互助保險意願的主要因素,為行業的進一步擴張和發展提供了依據,同時也對影響居民投保意願的相關文獻做了補充和延伸。

最後,以“康愛公社”這一我國最早的互聯網互助保障平臺為切入點,通過對其發展歷史、經營狀況和運營模式等方面的分析,有助於加強我們對我國互聯網互助保障行業現狀的瞭解,也能對行業未來的發展前景和潛在的影響做出更準確的判斷。
Internet mutual assistance is a further development of mutual insurance under the background of the Internet. With the prevalence of the Internet and third-party mobile payment, especially the increasing use of mobile payment applications such as “Alipay” in Chinese residents’ daily life, a large number of Internet mutual assistance platforms such as “Kang’ai Commune” have emerged. The number of users of mutual assistance platforms has continued to grow, and the industry has grown bigger and stronger. Thus, Internet mutual assistance has become a unique form of mutual insurance that exists only in China, which complements traditional insurance forms such as commercial insurance, social insurance and medical insurance, having great potential in improving China's social insurance system and residents' welfare. At the same time, the regulatory authorities such as the China Insurance Regulatory Commission also paid great attention to the Internet mutual assistance industry, issuing corresponding rules and regulations to give guidance on the supervision and development of mutual insurance organizations. Based on the flourish of the Internet mutual assistance industry and the attention from the regulatory authorities, this paper studies the development of China's Internet mutual assistance platform, and takes "Kangai Commune" as an example to analyze the development status and potential market of the industry. This paper aims to provide useful suggestions for the future development of the Internet mutual assistance platforms and the supervision of the industry by regulators, and to provide reference for scholars' future research on the Internet mutual assistance guarantee platform as well.

Since Internet mutual assistance is a new form of insurance that originated in China recently, scholars have paid little attention to it. The literature on the mutual insurance industry and crowdfunding model in Western literature provides a theoretical foundation for us to study the Internet mutual assistance platform. Related topic includes the adverse selection and moral hazard issues involved in mutual insurance (Smith and Stutzer, 1995; Guinnane and Streb, 2011), the characteristics of mutual insurance (Bainbridge, 1952; Hansmann, 1985) and the background of the crowdfunding model. Domestic scholars mostly discuss the development process of the Internet mutual assistance platforms with normative research methods (Sun Rui, 2016; Yi Hui and Hao Yan, 2016; Wang Jing and Huang Zhiyong, 2017), few study discuss the development of China's Internet mutual assistance platform combined with empirical evidence.

The paper studies the development of China’s Internet mutual assistance platforms from three aspects. First, based on the user information and survey data from users of "Kangai Commune", the earliest Internet mutual assistance platform in China, this article analyzes the user group characteristics of the Internet mutual assistance platform. Secondly, making use of the evidence from a survey of residents' willingness to participate in the Internet mutual assistance, we further analyze the willingness of Chinese residents to participate in Internet mutual assistance and its influencing factors, which help us clarify the characteristics of potential users in the industry. In addition, based on their comparison on the characteristics of existing users and potential users, we furtherly propose the possible future development direction of the Internet mutual assistance industry.Finally, this paper analyzes the operation mode of the Internet mutual assistance platform. By summarizing and evaluating the operation mode of the Internet mutual assistance platform, this paper summarizes the characteristics, advantages and potential defects of the operation model of Internet mutual assistance platforms.

Based on the above research and analysis, the main findings of this paper are as follows. First, this paper finds that the users of the Internet mutual assistance platforms are mainly middle-aged, low- and middle-income groups with strong insurance awareness in economically developed areas. From the user data of “Kang’ai Commune”, the typical platform of the Internet mutual insurance industry, this paper finds that most of the users in the mutual insurance industry live in urban areas with higher economic development, women are slightly more than men, and their ages are mainly distributed over 40 years old. In terms of occupation, education and income, the freelancers in the user group are the most, with the primary and secondary education level as the mainstay, and more than 85% of the users have a monthly income of less than 5,000 CNY. At the same time, the existing users are in good health condition, and have a good sense of exercising, health and insurance.

Second, the paper finds that residents’ willingness to participate in Internet mutual assistance platforms is influenced by a series of factors such as Internet usage habits and insurance concepts and awareness. Specifically, the level of economic development and the type of residence significantly affect residents' Internet usage habits. The more frequently they use the social networking platforms such as WeChat and the more they trust mobile payment, the more they tend to participate in Internet mutual assistance platforms. In addition, the residents’ awareness and insurance demand are affected by factors such as age, income, education level and the level of social insurance and medical insurance. When the social insurance and medical insurance system provide limited protection, the higher the level of income and education and the older the residents, the stronger their insurance awareness and insurance needs, and thus they are more willing to participate in Internet mutual assistance platforms. However, when the protection from the social insurance and medical insurance is high, the residents are less willing to participate in the Internet mutual assistance platforms, regardless of their age, income or other personal characteristics.

Third, with the special operating model of pooling users through the platform to form a mutual assistance group, Internet mutual assistance platforms achieve effective mutual assistance among platform members, and play a role of charity as well. Thanks to the special operating model, the Internet mutual assistance platforms have higher operating efficiency than traditional insurance companies do, and effectively reduce insurance costs, which in turn lowers the insurance entry threshold and enables more people with insurance needs to afford it. At the same time, the Internet mutual assistance platform has broken down the geographical and time restrictions and almost all the processions can be carried out online, which makes the claim timeline can be controlled well. In addition, the Internet mutual assistance platforms are more transparent than traditional insurance companies, and the members have more interactions. Naturally, members’ loyalty to the organization is also higher in Internet mutual assistance platforms. Howerer, we also need to realize that Internet mutual assistance platforms also face some new types of risk, such as insufficient ability to withstand risk, fund unsafety, false reporting, and inadequate audits. Therefore, the government need to carry out more regulatory work in a planned manner in the future.

The possible contributions of this article are as follows. First, the Internet mutual assistance industry is a new development of the insurance industry under the background of the Internet, and it is an emerging industry that has appeared in recent years. Based on the analysis of the development history, current conditions and operating models of “Kang’ai Commune”, the earliest Internet mutual insurance platform in China, we get a better understanding of the whole industry. In addition, this paper can help scholars and industry practitioners make better judgments on the future development and potential impacts of the industry.

Secondly, based on the analysis of the user groups in the Internet mutual insurance industry, we have deepened our understanding of Internet mutual assistance products, which is more conducive to clarifying the market position and potential customers of Internet mutual insurance products. Moreover, it can also help industry practitioners to develop new products and make market expansion based on more accurate market position, increase insurance participation and coverage, and reduce overall social risk.

Finally, based on the unique survey data, this paper empirically tests the main factors affecting residents' willingness to participate in Internet mutual assistance platforms, provides a basis for further expansion and development of the industry, and extends the literature on the willingness of residents to purchase insurance.

    Research areas

  • Internet mutual assistance platforms, Insurance participation willingness, User characteristics, Industry analysis