「反訓」成因研究 - 以徐世榮《古漢語反訓集釋》為語料

The Origin of Fanxun - Based on Xu Shirong's Gu Han Yu Fanxun Ji Shi

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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  • Pang Fei KWOK (Supervisor)
Award date16 Feb 2024

Abstract

「反訓」課題肇始於郭璞對於《爾雅》三條注釋:「義相反而兼通」、「美惡不嫌同名」、「訓義之反覆用之」。這三條注釋實際有兩種含義:①用反義釋字;②一字兼相反兩義。

之後的古代訓詁學家在引用郭璞這三條注釋時,卻未能很好地區分其中的兩種含義。他們往往通過列舉大量具有「一字兼相反兩義」的字例,來證明可以「用反義釋字」。「反訓」這一稱名在清代被提出。它的命名方式,反應了清代學者將「一字兼相反兩義」視作字義發展規律的傾向,以及認為「反訓」可以歸而類之,進而作為訓詁方法的傾向。

八九十年代以來,圍繞「反訓」的稱名、界義、成因,學界爭議不斷。其核心爭議點又可以歸為兩點:其一,「反訓」研究當以字為基礎,還是以詞為基礎?其二,「反訓」字例是否具有一定規律,可以推衍成為訓詁方法?

回溯「反訓」課題的發展史,可以回應第一個問題:「反訓」現象不是詞義現象,而是反義同字。在「反訓」研究中,有學者特意排除相反兩義共字的情況,只討論相反兩義共詞的情況。這都是基於現代詞彙學的視角,對「反訓」課題的限定。沒有必要將「反訓」課題強行塞入詞義系統,然後再討論「反訓」有多麼不適應詞彙學的規章。「反訓」的研究應該以字為基礎。

對於第二個問題,討論以「反訓」是否可以作為訓詁方法,為字義解釋提供參考,要看「反訓」字例相反兩義的成因否具有一定的規律性。故而「反訓」字例相反兩義的成因是研究的重點。

本文利用徐世榮《古漢語反訓集釋》所匯集的504個字例,分析「反訓」字例相反兩義的成因。徐書全面匯總了前人的字例研究成果,為「反訓」字例的進一步研究保留了大量材料。但是,徐書所收錄的很多字例是否是「反訓」字例,有待考量,所以需要先確定本文擇選字例的標準與範圍。

本文根據對「反訓」課題的梳理,確立了「兩義同字」、「兩義相反」、「兩義共時」的標準。按照以上標準,本文逐一篩選、分析徐書所羅字例。之後,歸類總結「反訓」字的成因,探討相反兩義共字的基礎,繼而判斷「反訓」字形成是否具有規律性,回答「『反訓』是否作為訓詁方法」的問題,從而解決圍繞「反訓」課題的爭論。
The topic of Fanxun(反訓)begins with Guo Pu’s(郭璞) three comments on Erya (《爾雅》) : “The meanings are opposite and can be used in both ways,” “Good and evil could have the same name”, and “Explaining meaning with antonym”. These three notes actually have two meanings: using antonym to explain characters; one character with two opposite meanings.

Later ancient exegesis scholars failed to distinguish between the two meanings when citing these three annotations by Guo Pu. They often prove that there are “using antonym to explain a character” by listing a large number of character examples with “one character with two opposite meanings”. The term Fanxun was proposed in the Qing Dynasty. Its name reflects the tendency of scholars in the Qing Dynasty to regard “one character with two opposite meanings” as the law of development of word meanings, which can be classified and used as an exegetical method.

Since the 1980s and 1990s, there have been constant disputes in academic circles surrounding the name, definition, and causes of Fanxun. The core controversial issues can be classified into two points: The first, should the research on Fanxun be based on characters or words? The second, are there certain rules in Fanxun character examples that can be derived into exegetical methods?

Looking back at the development history of the topic of Fanxun, I can answer the first question: The topic of Fanxun has existed in ancient China, and ancient exegesis itself was character-based. In the process of modernizing Xungu (訓詁), scholars have been trying to frame Xungu in the system of lexicology. In the study of Fanxun, the phenomenon of Fanxun is not a word phenomenon, but an character phenomenon, which has also become the original since it has been accused of. Therefore, in the study of Fanxun, some scholars deliberately exclude the situation where two opposite meanings share the same character, and only discuss the situation where two opposite meanings share the same word. This is all based on the reduction and judgment of Fanxun issues from the perspective of modern lexicology. There is no need to force the topic of Fanxun into the lexicology system and then discuss how Fanxun does not fit into the rules of lexicology. The study of Fanxun should be based on characters.

Regarding the second question, I discuss whether Fanxun can be used as an exegetical method to provide a reference for the interpretation of character meanings. It depends on whether the reasons for the opposite meanings of Fanxun examples have certain regularity. Therefore, the cause of the opposite meanings of Fanxun character examples is the focus of research.

This article uses 504 words examples collected in Xu Shirong’s (徐世榮) monograph Gu Han Yu Fanxun Ji Shi (《古漢語反訓集釋》) to analyze the reasons for the opposite meanings of Fanxun characters. Xu Shudui comprehensively summarized the previous research results on Fanxun character examples and retained a large amount of material for further research on Fanxun character examples. However, it remains to be considered whether many of the character examples included in Xu’s monograph are proper Fanxun examples, so it is necessary to first determine the criteria and scope for selecting word examples in this article.

There are three criteria: the same character, the same time and the opposite meanings. According to the above three selection criteria, this article screens and analyzes the character examples collected by Xu’s monograph one by one. Afterwards, it classifies and summarizes the causes of Fanxun characters, explores the basis of the coexistence of two opposite meanings, and then judges whether the formation of Fanxun is regular, and answers “whether Fanxun can be used as an exegetical method”, thereby solving the problem surrounding the issue of Fanxun debate.

    Research areas

  • Fanxun, Explaining meaning with antonym, Xungu