刑事審後程序:刑事訴訟程序的新大陸 —— 以刑事一體化理論為視角

Criminal Post-Trial Procedure: The New Continent of Criminal Proceedings – From the Perspective of Criminal Integration Theory

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date3 Jun 2020

Abstract

现代科学充分证明,支离分割的思想方法和静态观念已经成为科学研究的巨大障碍,因而在20世纪上半叶诞生了科学探索“整体”或“系统”的新范式即系统论。刑事一体化理论的实质,是运用系统论研究刑事学科的结晶,而刑事一体化理论研究如果要引向深入,那就需要将各刑事部门学科置于刑事学科整体背景下进行研究,也需要将刑事学科群作为一个整体与各刑事部门学科联系起来研究。因此,本文研究刑事诉讼法学的刑事审后程序问题,即以刑事一体化理论为视角。

刑事诉讼法学的通说理论认为,狭义上的刑事诉讼程序仅指刑事审判程序;广义上的刑事诉讼程序,则包括主要由立案、侦查、审查起诉和提起公诉构成的刑事审前程序,主要由简易程序和普通程序构成的刑事审判程序,以及刑事执行程序。由于大多数国家立法、司法和理论研究中的刑事诉讼程序,一般是指广义上的刑事诉讼程序,因而才出现刑事审前程序、刑事审判程序和“刑事审后程序”的划分。随着刑事诉讼司法实践的不断发展,“刑事审后程序”除了包括刑事执行程序这个传统的内容之外,还应当包括由更生保护程序、前科消灭程序和刑事补偿程序构成的“刑事执行后程序”,形成更加广义上的刑事诉讼程序。但是,由于各种因素的影响,“刑事执行后程序”未能出现在刑事诉讼程序的主体框架之中。因此,在刑事诉讼程序理论和实践中,“刑事审后程序”也就一直以一个尚未成形的“新大陆”的面目而存在。

通过仔细梳理现行刑事法目的(刑法目的和刑事诉讼法目的的统称)理论和具体分析刑事诉讼司法实践的新发展,本书惊讶的发现,刑事诉讼的程序理论研究,不仅已经落后于刑事诉讼其他方面的理论研究和刑事法目的理论研究,而且对于刑事诉讼程序司法实践的不断发展也没有及时作出全面的反应,导致在刑事诉讼程序的理论和实践中均出现了一个需要解决的重大问题,这个重大的问题就是:现行刑事诉讼程序已经变成了一个残缺不全的法律机制,或者说,现行刑事诉讼程序已经不能满足刑事法目的实现的需要。只有构建“刑事审后程序”,并将其加入到刑事诉讼程序之中,才真正算得上机制完整,从而为全面实现刑事法目的提供必要的平台。

本文以刑事法目的的实现为切入点,找到了“刑事审后程序”产生的内在动力和根本原因,发现了“刑事审后程序”以“碎片化”方式存在的现实状态,分析了其现行立法的模式、特征和存在的主要问题,提出了其立法完善的思路和方法,构建了“刑事审后程序”体系并研究了其理论基础,通过与行刑程序、刑事审判程序等程序进行一定的比较分析,揭示了“刑事审后程序”的面相,从而在理论上探讨了“为什么产生刑事审后程序”和“什么是刑事审后程序”这两个基本问题。

众所周知,哥伦布发现新大陆之后,颠覆了“地球是平的”这一人们普遍认可的固有观念。“刑事审后程序”的发现和提出,虽然没有颠覆性的力量,但同样也会改变和修正刑事诉讼法学基本理论的一些通说观点或者基本观点,使本书至少在理论上认识到,刑事诉讼程序应当在当事人合法权益的刚性保护和减少甚至避免国家权力的恣意妄为方面产生巨大的积极效能,应当为刑事当事人提供全面、充分和均衡的人权保障。本书预测,研究“刑事审后程序”这个刑事诉讼程序的“新大陆”,不仅为刑事诉讼程序理论和实践找到了新领域,为刑事一体化理论的完善贡献出新的智力支持,而且对刑事诉讼法学的一些基本概念、已有原则、价值、目的和功能等一系列的深层理论可能会产生剧烈影响。
Modern science has fully proved that the fragmented ideological methods and static concepts of fragmentation have become an enormous obstacle to scientific research. Therefore, in the first half of the 20th century, a new paradigm called the systematic theory that explored the concept of the "whole" or "system" was born. The essence of the theory of criminal integration is to use systematic theory to study the essence of criminal studies. If we were to further the study of criminal integration theory, it is necessary to put various criminal departments into the overall context of criminal disciplines. There is also a need to link the group of the subject as a whole to the disciplines of various criminal departments. Therefore, this book analyzes the criminal post-trial procedure of criminal procedure law from the perspective of criminal integration theory.

The general theory of criminal procedure law holds that, in a narrow sense, criminal proceedings refer only to criminal trial procedures. Whereas criminal proceedings in a broad sense include criminal pretrial procedures consisting mainly of filing, investigating, examining and prosecuting and initiating public prosecution, criminal trial procedures consisting mainly of summary procedure and ordinary procedure, and criminal enforcement procedures. In most countries, criminal procedures in national legislative, judicial and theoretical researches generally refers to the criminal procedure in a broad sense, and that leads to the division of the criminal pretrial procedure, the criminal trial procedure and the "criminal post-trial procedure". With the continuous development of judicial practice in criminal proceedings, the "criminal post-trial procedure" should include the "criminal post-execution procedure" consisting of rehabilitation protection procedures, criminal elimination procedures, and criminal compensation procedures, in addition to the traditional content of "criminal post-execution procedure", forming a broader concept of criminal procedure. However, due to various reasons, the "criminal post-execution procedure" failed to appear in the main body of the criminal procedure. Therefore, in the theory and practice of criminal procedure, the "criminal post-trial procedure" has always existed as an unformed "New World".

By carefully analyzing the theory of the purposes of criminal law and criminal procedure law and the new development of judicial practice in criminal proceedings, this book is surprised to find that the theoretical study of criminal proceedings is not only lagging behind the theoretical research in other aspects of criminal litigation and theoretical research on the purposes of criminal law and criminal procedure law, but also failed to response to the evolving judicial practices in criminal litigation. That leads to a significant problem in the theory and practice of criminal procedure which needs to be solved. The major problem is that the current criminal procedure has become an imperfect system, or the current criminal procedure can no longer meet the needs of the purposes of criminal law and criminal procedure law. Only by constructing a "criminal post-trial procedure" and adding it to the criminal proceedings will it be genuinely complete and provide the necessary platform to realize the purposes of criminal law and criminal procedure law fully.

This book cut in from the realization of aims of the criminal law angle to analyzes the internal motivation and reason of the "criminal post-trial procedure". Through the comparative analysis of the execution procedure and the criminal trial procedure, etc, this book reveals the appearance and basic characteristics of the "criminal post-trial procedure", finds out the "criminal post-trial procedure" which existing in the form of "Fragmentation", analyses the mode, characteristics and main problems of its current legislation, proposes suggestions and methods for perfecting corresponding legislation, constructs the "criminal post-trial procedure" with the structure and theoretical basis fully studied, thus theoretically explores the two basic questions of "why there is a criminal post-trial procedure" and "what is the criminal after-trial procedure".

As everyone knows, after Columbus discovered the New World, he subverted the universally recognized concept that "the earth is flat". The advocacy of the "criminal post-trial procedure", maybe not subversive, but will nevertheless change and amend some general or basic views of the fundamental theory of criminal procedure law, so that we at least recognize in theory that, the criminal procedure should have a huge positive effect on the rigid protection of the legitimate rights and interests of the parties and the reduction or even avoidance of state power intervention, and it should provide criminal parties with comprehensive, adequate and balanced protection of human rights. Analyzing the "New World" aka the "criminal post-trial procedure" provides not only new battlefields for the development of theory and practice of criminal procedure but also contributes by providing new intellectual support for the improvement of criminal integration theory. Besides, it can pose dramatic effects in some aspects of the criminal procedure law, such as its basic concepts, existing principles, values, and goals.

    Research areas

  • Criminal integration, the purposes of criminal law and criminal procedure law, criminal procedure law purposes, criminal law purposes, criminal post-trial procedures