關係規範與決策模式 - 保健品送禮行為探究

Relationship Norms and Decision-Making Strategies - Gift Purchasing Behavior in Health Care Product Market

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Author(s)

  • Xianzhong MENG

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Award date21 Aug 2018

Abstract

在國家宣導建設“健康中國”的21世紀,人的生命與健康意識日漸增強,對各類健康產品的消費需求也以驚人的速度在擴大。健康產業迎來了千載難逢的紅利期;其中,經歷了跌宕起伏、亂象叢生的保健品行業也遇到了革故鼎新的契機。在行銷學、社會學等領域的相關研究中已經證實,保健品行業給消費者留下了許多負面的印象;尤其在行銷手段和策略上,虛假行銷、誇大行銷、過度包裝等手段屢見不鮮,使得許多消費者深受其害。隨著保健養生逐漸成為大眾基本需求,保健品行業只有走上更科學化、規範化的道路,才能在市場中站穩腳跟。

從理論層面上看,以往的研究主要集中在對保健品市場及行業的基本觀察與問卷調查水準上。研究的結論也主要是對保健品市場及行業中存在的現象的總結與概括,並基於此提出一系列的行銷建議與監管對策。大部分研究缺少理論層面的分析,只有在極少數的消費者研究中,才會涉及一些理論層面的分析,例如通過模糊綜合評判理論、SVM模型等對保健品消費群體進行細分,以期通過消費者的基本特徵來準確預測其消費行為。然而這些理論仍停留在消費者基本特徵的層面,並沒有涉及消費者的消費心理。動機決定行為,揭示消費者在消費保健品時的心理過程將在理論上對前人的研究進行重要補充,也是對保健品研究鄰域的理論深化。

從研究的情境看,以往的保健品研究提出,保健品作為禮品消費是保健品市場的一個重要現象。然而過去的研究也止於此,並沒有對保健禮品消費這一重要的市場現象進行理論分析。事實上,經過研究發現,人們購買保健品的目的主要是自我保健和贈送他人兩種,而贈送他人已經成為越來越重要的一個動機。因此,在中國消費情境下,探究保健禮品選購過程中人們的消費心理是一個具有重要現實意義和理論意義的議題,對保健品市場和禮品市場的實踐具有很強的指導性。

基於保健品送禮這一普遍的社會經濟現象,本研究明確了在送禮情境中探究消費者購買保健品的心理動機與決策行為的重要意義。本文的選題建立在中國的特定社會背景下,即在一個“事事講關係”的中國社會中,探究保健品送禮中,消費者在為不同關係規範下的物件選購產品時的心理動機與決策模式差異。

本文從定量研究的角度,採用問卷調查與實驗室實驗相結合的方法。從文獻梳理與問卷調查中構建出本研究的理論框架,並在此基礎上發展出分析操作框架,設計實驗室實驗,進行因果效應驗證。在問卷調研基礎上,發現了值得關注的研究現象和問題,結合消費者決策模式理論,運用情景實驗的方法印證了本文的基本假設,即消費者在為不同關係規範下的送禮物件選購保健產品時傾向於採用不同的決策模式(感性決策模式 vs. 理性決策模式)。
In the 21st Century, an age pioneering building the “Healthy China”, people's awareness of life and health is increasing, and the demand for various kinds of health products is expanding at an alarming rate. Health industry has ushered in the golden period of dividend. In this, experiencing highs and lows, the health care product industry is also confronted with the opportunity of reform and innovation. Past research in marketing and sociology domains, has confirmed that people’s impressions on health care product industry are mostly negative. False marketing, exaggerated marketing, and excessive packaging, are common marketing strategies in health care product promotion, which fool the consumers. As the health care becomes the public basic need, health care product industry is only on the path of being more scientific and standardized, in order to gain a foothold in the market.

From the theoretical perspective, previous studies of health care product market and industry mainly focused on the basic observations and questionnaire surveys. And the main findings are the summaries of the phenomena in those markets. And based on these, they propose a series of marketing suggestions and regulatory countermeasures. Most of these research lack theoretical analyses, and only few consumer research involves consumer theories. For instance, in some studies, researchers use fuzzy synthetic evaluation theory and SVM model to segment distinct consumer groups and predict their consumption behaviors through their basic characteristics data. However, these theories remain at the base of consumer fundamentals, and there is no consumer psychology involved. Motivation determines behavior. Revealing the consumer psychological process in health care product consumption will be an important supplement to the previous studies, which is also the theoretical deepening of the health care product research.

From the research situation perspective, previous studies have proposed that purchasing health care products as gifts is an important phenomenon in health care product market. However, the previous research stop here, and make no further theoretical analysis on this important market phenomenon. Actually, self-care and gifting are the primary purposes when people purchase health care products. And among the two, gifting has become an increasingly important motivation. Therefore, in the Chinese consumption context, exploring consumer’ s psychological process when choosing health care product as gift is of great realistic and theoretical implications. The conclusions will become good guidance to the health care product market and gift market.

Based on the general social and economic phenomenon of purchasing health care product as gift, this study has clarified the significance of exploring the different consumers’ psychological motivations and decision-making strategies.

The research topic depends on the specific social background in China, a social context emphasizing “it is all about relation”. And specifically, it explores the differences in psychological motivations and decision-making patterns of consumers when choosing health care products for others under different relational norms.

This paper adopts the quantitative research methods, including questionnaire surveys and laboratory experiments. Our theoretical framework is constructed from literature deduction and questionnaire surveys conclusions, and on this basis, analytical operation framework is developed, laboratory experiments are designed. We verify the causal effects through the laboratory experiments. We discover the noteworthy phenomena and problems when analyzing the survey data, and further, we hypothesize that consumers tend to take different decision strategies (feeling-based vs. reason-based) when choosing health care products for others under two distinct relational norms. Based on the consumer decision-making theory, this paper proves the basic hypothesis in the two situational experiments.

    Research areas

  • Health Care Product, Gifting, Relation, Consumer Psychology, Decision Strategy