企業家個性特徵及其對績效的影響 -- 基於企業集團管控程度的研究

Entrepreneur's Personality and Its Impact on Performance: A Research on Firm Group's Management & Control

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Author(s)

  • Jinshi CHEN

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Award date1 Aug 2018

Abstract

改革開放40年來,許多中國企業高速成長,隨之帶來的是企業規模的快速擴張,而企業通過集團化運作可以通過集中調度降低市場交易成本,通過協同聯合降低組織運行成本,因此,為了降低市場交易成本與內部代理成本,企業集團化逐漸成為企業經營的目標和追求,而伴隨規模的擴大和業務的擴張,企業集團在組織管控及業務運營等方面面臨日益複雜的局面,近年來,企業通過集團化實現集中管控使得企業資訊的獲取與資源的調度更加高效,通過內部交易市場化啟動微觀主體,通過合夥制與跟投制降低代理成本,已經成為集團管控模式創新的主要形式並推動大型集團化企業實現裂變式的倍速增長。這此過程中,企業家本人及企業家的個性特徵發揮著十分重要的作用。遺憾的是,現有文獻中對企業家和集團管控的研究並未能幫助解答企業家究竟在集團管控和企業績效之中發揮何種作用以及如何發揮作用,集團管控模式的不同對績效有何影響也尚不明確。基於此,本文運用戰略管理、交易成本理論、委託代理理論以及心理學相關理論,構建了大五企業家個性模型,研究企業家個性對集團管控和績效的作用,並探討了集團戰略定位以及環境動態性在這個過程中的影響。通過理論分析和實證檢驗,本文發現以下結論:

(1)企業家個性可用心理學中的外向性、神經質、開明性、宜人性和盡責性五個維度進行衡量。外向性指企業家人際互動的數量和密度。神經質與企業家的情緒調節能力、情緒的穩定性相關,開明性指企業家的認知風格。宜人性則為企業家對員工和合作夥伴的看法和相處原則。盡責性則與企業家對自己的要求相關,對目標的堅持以及願意為實現目標付出的程度。

(2)企業家個性對集團管控程度選擇有顯著影響。具有不同個性特徵的企業家將選擇不同的管控程度,企業家個性的各個維度對管控程度的影響方向和大小不盡相同。其中,外向性、開明性、宜人性和盡責性四個方面促使企業家給予子公司較高的自主權,而神經質企業家則傾向于選擇更為集權的管控模式。其中,外向性對集團管控程度的影響最大,盡責性次之,而神經質的影響最小。

(3)企業家個性直接並通過集團管控程度間接影響企業績效。企業家個性對子公司績效與集團整體績效有十分顯著的影響。其中,外向性、開明性、宜人性和盡責性積極影響子公司績效和集團績效,而神經質個性則對子公司績效和集團整體績效有消極影響。集團管控程度積極影響企業績效,子公司自主權程度越高,績效越高。在考慮集團管控程度的情況下,企業家個性的作用將變小。總體而言,企業家個性對子公司績效的影響大於集團整體績效。

(4)集團戰略定位將影響企業家個性對集團管控程度選擇的作用,呈現出調節效應。不同集團戰略定位下,企業家個性與管控程度之間的關係存在明顯差異。相比於在非相關行業中進行多元化經營的企業集團,企業家個性的五個維度對於相關多元化實業經營企業集團中的管控程度影響更大。

(5)環境動態性對管控程度與子公司績效以及管控程度與集團績效之間的關係的影響存在差異。其中,環境動態性負向調節管控程度對子公司績效的影響,即在環境較為動盪的情況下,管控程度對子公司績效的影響將減弱。而環境動態性在管控程度與集團績效之間的作用則不顯著。
Firm groups become more and more firm’s objectives and pursuits under the tradeoff of market transaction costs and internal agency and production costs while firm grow up and become bigger. What come together with the developing and bigger firm group is the more and more complex firm organization and operation. Management & control become the priority for firm group, in which entrepreneurs play a very important role. However, existing literature about entrepreneurs and management & control haven’t given an anser about what role entrepreneurs play in group control and firm performance, and how to play the role better. Considering that, this paper construct the big-five entrepreneur personality model on the basisi of previour studies, explores the entrepreneurial personality’s influence on group control and firm performance, and explores the role of group strategic positioning and environmental dynamics in this process. By using the method of normative analysis and empirical research, this paper draws the following conclusions:

(1) Entrepreneur’s personality can be divided into five dimensions: extroversion, neuroticism, Openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Extroversion refers to the number and density of entrepreneurs' interpersonal interaction. Neuroticism refers to entrepreneur's ability of emotional adjustment and emotional stability. Openness to experience refers to the cognitive style of the entrepreneur. Agreeableness is entrepreneur’s attitude to others. Conscientiousness refers to entrepreneur’s attitude to themselves, the continuous pursuit of the goal and the effort that is willing to pay for it. 

(2) Entrepreneur’s personality has a significant influence on the selection of the management and control of the group. Entrepreneurs with different personality will choose different style of control. Extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness make entrepreneurs give higher autonomy to their subsidiaries, while neurotic entrepreneurs prefer centralization style. Among them, extroversion has the greatest impact on the degree of control of the group, the second is conscientiousness, and the neuroticism is the least.
(3) Entrepreneur's personality affects the performance directly and indirectly through the degree of group management and control. The entrepreneur personality has a significant impact on the subsidiary performance and the overall group performance. Among them, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness have a positive impact on subsidiaries' performance and group performance, while neuroticism has negative effects on subsidiary performance and group performance. The degree of group management and control positively affects the performance, the higher the autonomy of the subsidiaries, the higher the performance. And the impact of entrepreneur personality on group performance is smaller than its impact on subsidiaries' performance.
(4) The strategic positioning plays a modetrating role on the relationship betreewn entrepreneur’s personality and group management and control. Under the strategic position of different groups, there is a significant difference in the influence of entrepreneur personality on group management and control. The five dimensions of entrepreneurial personality have greater impact on group management and control. in the related diversified groups than those in the unrelated diversified group.
(5) Environmental dynamics palys a different role on the relationship between group management and control and the subsidiary performance of the subsidiary and the relationship between the group management and control and the group performance. It plays a negative moderating role on the relationship between group management and control and the subsidiary performance, while the role of environmental dynamism is not significant on the relationship between the group management and control and the group performance.

    Research areas

  • Firm Group, Entrepreneurs' Personality, Group Management and Control, Environmental Dynamic, Performance