市場導向對企業創新及績效的影響 - 以我國勘察設計行業為例

The Influence of Market Orientation on Firm Innovation and Performance: An Example of Chinese Exploration and Design Industry

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date14 Jun 2017

Abstract

市場導向是行銷領域的一個重要概念,儘管自1990年以來,西方文獻中就市場導向的概念、測量、與企業績效的關係進行了探討,基本形成了關於市場導向理論框架的基本模式,但對於市場導向與企業績效關係的研究上,仍然存在爭議。並且,市場導向研究的背景較多集中於成熟的市場環境,對於新興市場,特別是轉型經濟體制下市場導向的實施關注較少。

在轉型經濟體制背景下,整個行業的企業制改革使得企業亟需確立能夠適應內外部雙重變革(內部企業化改革與外部制度環境變革)的戰略導向。在這種情境下,市場導向是否能夠有效改善企業績效?在大力提倡技術創新、管理創新的同時,市場導向對企業創新有何影響?企業創新是否是市場導向影響企業績效的仲介機制?市場導向能否與企業其它戰略資源(技術導向、制度資本)相配合,提高企業在轉型經濟環境中的適應能力?對於這些問題的回答,不僅能夠在理論上完善市場導向研究,同時具有管理實踐指導意義。

本研究以中國勘察設計行業為調查背景,該行業自1978年開始探索企業化改革,基於資源基礎觀與制度分析理論視角,提出以市場導向為核心的概念研究模型,運用中國勘察設計行業230家企業的調研資料,檢驗了以市場導向的實施為核心的三個問題:第一,轉型經濟環境下,市場導向對企業績效的直接影響。針對這一問題,本研究分維度探討了市場導向對企業長期及短期績效的影響。同時在控制市場環境因素的條件下,探討了制度環境因素(包括企業所有制類型、地域市場化指數、制度不確定性)對企業戰略實施的影響;第二,企業創新對市場導向與企業績效關係的仲介作用。本文關注兩個維度的企業創新——技術創新與管理創新;第三,不同戰略資源對轉型背景下企業績效的作用。對比不同戰略的作用強度及交互作用效果。

研究結果表明,(1)市場導向戰略整體上對轉型經濟背景下企業績效有改善作用,競爭者導向在這一關係中起到決定性作用,顧客導向反而對企業績效存在負面影響,這一點對於競爭異常激烈的勘察設計行業具有非常重要的現實指導意義;(2)企業創新對市場導向與企業績效關係存在仲介作用,技術創新是仲介機制發生作用的主要原因;(3)市場導向、技術導向與制度資本三種不同的企業戰略資源均能夠提升企業績效,其中,制度資本的作用最強,並且與市場導向戰略存在協同作用,說明在轉型經濟體制下,企業最寶貴的戰略資源必須能夠應對制度環境的不確定性。本研究根據調研及資料分析結果,對企業實踐及行業管理提出了建議。
Market orientation has been a core concept in marketing literature. Although extant research has discussed the definition and measurement market orientation, as well as the relationship between market orientation and firm performance, findings regarding the relationship have been mixed. Moreover, market orientation research has primarily been conducted in mature markets; little has been known about the implementation of market orientation in emerging markets, transitional economy in parituclar.

Under the context of transitional economy, firms need to choose effective strategic orientations to deal with the dual transformation—internal and external changes—incurred by industry enterprise reform. As such, is market orientation effective in improving firm performance? How would market orientation influence firm innovation, in terms of technological and management innovation? Does firm innovation mediate the relationship between market orientation and firm performance? How would market orientation, together with other firm strategic resources (i.e., technological orientation, institutional capital), influences firm performance? Answersing these questions could advance theoretical understanding of market orientation and offer managerial implications for firms in transitional context.

The research setting focuses on Chinese investigation and design industry, which has been undertaking enterprise reform and deregulation since 1978. Based on resource-based view and institutional analysis, this study examines a research framework focused on market orientation using data from 230 firms from Chinese investigation and design industry. Specifically, the research examines: (1) market orientation’s influence on firm performance under the context of industry transformation. The analysis takes a component-wise approach to discuss dimensional impact of customer and competitor orientation on both long- and short-term performance; in addition, the research explores how institutional factors (ownership, market index, and institutional uncertainty), after controlling for market environment, influence the relationship between market orientation and performance. (2) The mediation role of firm innovation (technological and management innovation) in market orientation-performance relationship. (3) Compare influences from different strategic resources, i.e., market orientation, technological orientation, and institutional capital, and their interactive effects.

The findings indicate that: (1) market orientation has a positive effect on firm performance in transitional context, and competitor orientation is the critical factor whereas customer orientation may harm firm performance. This finding is very important for firms faced with cutthroat competition. (2) Firm innovation, more specifically, technological innovation, mediates the relationship between market orientation and firm performance. (3) Maket orientation, technological orientation, and institutional capital improve firm performance but institutional capital exerts a stronger impact and a interplay effect with market orientation. It suggests that in transitional context, firms should acquire strategic resources that could deal with institutional uncertainty. Based on these findings, the paper offers managerial implicaitons for firms and industry management.

    Research areas

  • market orientation, firm innovation, firm performance, technological orientation, institutional capital, institutional environment, transitional economy