授權型領導行為對員工工作滿意度和組織公民行為的影響研究 - 基於三個中介機制的比較分析

The Effects of Empowering Leadership on Employee Job Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior - A Comparative Analysis Based on Three Mediation Mechanisms

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date31 Aug 2017

Abstract

隨著大數據時代興起,很多企業發展已初具規模,領導發現憑藉一己之力很難處理每天繁多的信息和事物,授權勢在必行。如何讓權力“放”的有效,員工積極性高,是很多企業目前實際面臨的選擇和挑戰。從這一現象入手,我們關注授權型領導行爲對企業和員工的影響機制。授權型領導既强調領導與下屬分享權力,同時也關注授權後下屬的心理感知和反映,授權賦能的過程將領導風格與下屬心理反應緊密聯繫在了一起。我們錨定這一領導行爲,從下屬心理層面出發,探究領導授權對下屬工作態度以及自發的組織公民行爲之間的關係。

目前關于領導行爲的研究多是集中于變革型領導和交易型領導,有關授權型領導的研究不多,僅有的研究也多是關注領導授權與組織績效和員工創新行爲之間的關係,幾乎沒有學者探究授權型領導行爲與員工工作滿意度和組織公民行爲的關係。我們對這一主效應進行論證的基礎上,更想打開這一關係之間的“黑箱”,探究中間的影響機制。我們基于三個理論模型對應三個中介變量,深入剖析這一影響路徑。動機模型認爲,更多的授權可以讓下屬參與决策制定,下屬可以從工作中獲得更多的內在激勵(Conger & Kanungo, 1988; Thomas & Velthouse, 1990)和更多的心理授權(Spreitzer, 1995),進而提升滿意度水平,表現出組織公民行爲。關係模型指出,領導更願意將權力賦予“圈內人”,保證自己的意志得以實現。和領導存在較高水平領導-成員交換關係的下屬獲得授權後,滿意度水平較高,且更可能努力完成任務甚至額外工作來保持與領導的高層次互動,發展長期、穩定的交換關係。信任模型則認爲授權型領導以身作則,願意與下屬分享信息、權力,提供有效指導,關心和幫助下屬,這樣的領導很容易培養出較高的下屬對主管的信任水平(Dirks & Ferrin, 2002),作爲結果,下屬滿意度水平較高,且更願意自願做出更多利于組織和領導的工作以回報領導的信任。

本研究在此基礎上,進一步比較三個中介關係的影響强弱,成爲研究的一大亮點。我們運用實證分析的研究方法,通過預調研調整問卷,在正式調研中共收集有效樣本660個,運用驗證性因子分析和多元回歸等方法對數據進行檢驗。最終我們發現,授權型領導行爲對工作滿意度和組織公民行爲具有正向影響;在三個中介變量作用比較中,基于動機模型的心理授權中介作用最强,其次是基于信任模型的主管信任,而基于關係模型的領導-成員交換關係的影響作用相對最弱,這與實踐中的發現剛好吻合。不難理解,當我們做一件事情是基于內在驅動完成的時候,其他所有激勵因素都成爲附屬品,內在驅動的力量最爲强大。而由于領導的時間和精力有限,只能和小部分人建立較高程度的領導-成員交換關係,獲得激勵的人數較少所以效果有限。此外,交換關係可能基于親戚血緣、相同地域、相同背景或者經歷等因素建立,形成之後具有一定的穩定性,這些共同的紐帶决定了這一關係的延續性,除非發生重大分歧,一般具有路徑依賴。因此久而久之,這一因素對那少部分“圈內人”帶來的激勵作用也幷不明顯。

理論方面,本研究豐富和發展了授權理論、領導行爲理論等方面的研究,對比分析了授權型領導行爲對員工工作態度和組織公民行爲影響的三條路徑,獲得了具有價值的探索和思考。實踐方面,本文的發現爲組織領導提供有益參考,在授權賦能的過程中,關注員工心理感受和內在驅動,通過授權給予員工內在激勵,調動員工積極性,充分發揮主人翁精神,在實現自身價值的同時做出有利于組織的行爲,最終讓員工滿意也讓組織受益。
With the development of the big data era, many enterprises have grown more complex. As leaders have recognized that they can not solve so many problems by themselves in a short time, empowerment is imperative. How to delegate effectively and make employees highly motivated are the choices and challenges which most organizations are facing now. Against this backdrop, we focus on the psychological mechanism through which empowering leaders influence their subordinates. Empowerment leadership emphasizes sharing power with subordinates and caring about the psychological perceptions of subordinates through delegation. Hence, we propose that empowerment leadership is effective only when affecting the psychological perceptions of subordinates. In this research, we associate empowerment leadership with subordinates' psychological responses; those psychological responses mediate the relationships between empowerment leadership and subordinates' job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior.

At present, much research on leadership behavior is focused on transformational leadership and transactional leadership, and only a few studies investigate empowerment leadership. Of these few studies, the main focus is on the relationship between delegation and employees' performance or employees' innovative behavior. Few studies examined the relationship between empowerment leadership and employee job satisfaction or organizational citizenship behavior. We are interested in this main effect and would like to open the "black box" of the relationship, exploring the mediation influence mechanism. To analyze the mediation influence path at depth, we use three theoretical models to support three corresponding mediators. The motivational model argues that more empowerment will give the subordinates a chance to participate in decision making, motivating them more intrinsically and enhancing psychological empowerment, which in turn lead to increased job satisfaction and a higher level of organizational citizenship behavior. Secondly, while relational model points out that leaders prefer to empower to those "in-group member" rather than "out-group member", as this would ensure that the power to be exercised under control. With the delegated power, in-group member will have more satisfaction and would be more willing to do extra work to maintain the in-group relations with leaders. The exchange-based model indicates that empowering leaders would like to share the information and power with subordinates and offer effective guidance and help them. Such leader behaviors are likely to foster subordinates' trust in the leader, which in turn leads to increased job satisfaction and more organizational citizenship behavior.

Furthermore, we attempt to compare the effects of three mediators. We use empirical research methodology and collect 660 valid responses through survey. We conduct a confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis to test our data. The results indicate that empowerment leadership has the positive effect on employees' job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. The mediation comparison results indicate that psychological empowerment (based on the motivational model) has the strongest impact on the outcome variables, followed by trust in supervisor (base don the trust model), and leader-member exchange (based on the personal relation model) has the minimal, though significant, impact on job satisfaction and OCB. With hindsight, it is not surprising that intrinsic motivation is the most influential of individual behaviors when compared to other extrinsic related motivators. Psychological empowerment and intrinsic motivation are the most important mechanism for effective empowerment leadership. On the other hand, since leaders have limited time and energy, they can build up high levels of LMX with just a few subordinates. Due to the small number of in-group subordinates, only limited subordinates are motivated. Furthermore, the exchange relationship probably on account of relatives, similar region, background and so on, once they form the relationship, it would have good stability. Unless they have significant differences, generally the exchange relationship has the path dependence. So over time, the incentive function of LMX to the minority "in-group member" is not as strong as the other two mediators.

Theoretically, this research enriches empowerment theory and the research on leadership by comparing and analyzing the three mediational paths through which empowerment leadership impacts job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. Practically, this research advocates that leaders should pay attention to employees' psychological perceptions and inner drive when they delegate. Leaders should make efforts to foster employees' enthusiasm and belief that they are in charge, so that employees' own value can be realized through proactive and desirable behaviors, which further enhances employees' satisfaction as well as benefits organizations.

    Research areas

  • Empowerment leadership, Job satisfaction, Organizational citizenship behavior, Psychological empowerment, Leader-member exchange, Trust-in-supervisor