基於五維教育培養模式的企業實習對民辦高職院校畢業生自我認知偏差與就業質量的影響研究 - 以廣西經濟職業學院為例

A Study on the Impact of Internship Based on Five-Dimensional Education Mode on Self-Assessment Bias and Employment Quality of Private Vocational College Students: A Case of Guangxi Economic Vocational College

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date30 Jul 2021

Abstract

隨著經濟社會的高速發展,中國高等教育的普及率達到了50%以上,高等教育的大眾化時代已經來臨,職場(企業)對大學畢業生的滿意度並未同步增長。現行的高等職業院校人才培養模式與當今中國企業用人需求存在脫節。大學(包括高職院校)畢業生的綜合能力素質等在相當大程度上還不能達到企業用人單位的理想需求,畢業生普遍存在自我認知偏差(達克效應)與心理資本、社會資本及人力資本不足的現象。因此,如何提高高職院校畢業生的職業發展與就業競爭力,縮短適應週期和提升自我認知客觀性,以及提高其就業品質,在更快為社會創造價值的同時,實現院校畢業生理想的職業發展,已成為各高職院校、用人單位和院校學生非常關注的問題。目前國內外有多種職業人才培養模式,均將實踐實習體系列為重要的教學培養內容;其中,實戰型的帶薪企業實習成為關鍵環節之一。儘管院校學生的企業實習對大學生就業、職業發展和用人單位都很重要,但以往的研究大多只是從宏觀的角度去探討,很少從微觀層面去實證研究。美國等國的學者對大學生“學校—工作(STW)”和“學校—職業生涯(STC)”等的研究,揭示了職業教育的過渡功能、產教融合、以學生為本、終身發展與成長等理念的發展趨勢,德國的雙元制、英國的工學交替及其他各國職業教育理論與實習實踐模式影響也很大;在人才培養模式的創新與發展上,國內外研究者都在探索有效的符合經濟社會發展趨勢的培養模式。因此,從現實需求和理論創新兩個方面來看,開展符合中國特色的職業人才培養模式和實踐實習模式的理論創新研究,以及相應的實證研究與實踐應用研究,特別是通過理論結合實踐應用的方式,針對民辦高職院校學生,探究帶薪實戰型學做交替的企業實習模式對就業品質和自我認知偏差(達克效應)影響的研究,有很高的現實意義與理論價值。

本研究首先對職業人才培養模式,企業實習與大學生職業發展等相關文獻進行收集梳理,並對各研究觀點進行分類與述評;在理論研究和初步總結實踐經驗基礎上,設計了五維教育培養模式及相應的五維企業實習模式,對其作用的內在機理進行分析,提出相關假設,並利用廣西經濟職業學院(下稱“學院”)2016級和2017級兩屆1700多個學生樣本,連續應用於實習實踐並追蹤研究近五年;運用多元回歸分析等資料分析方法對理論模型與假設進行驗證,並對研究結果展開討論。經過理論研究、應用實踐與實證分析,本研究得出如下初步結果:

學院學生參加第一輪三個月的帶薪五維企業實習(社會認知實習)前後,包括人力資本、社會資本和心理資本(簡稱“三大資本”)等內容的自我評價分數有所降低但無顯著差異,即實習後分數稍低於實習前;而教師同期評價,學生實習後三大資本分數高於實習前,說明學生在未完成實習前存在自我認知偏差,即“達克效應”。

但學院學生在經過學做交替、帶薪實戰型的兩輪共12個月五維企業實習(專業與頂崗實習)後,其心理資本,社會資本,人力資本的自我評價和教師評價都有所提高,兩方面評價趨向一致,證明五維企業實習可以明顯提高學院學生的心理資本、社會資本和人力資本;也能降低學院學生存在的“達克效應”,即自我認知偏差。

研究同時表明,心理資本、社會資本和人力資本的評分越高的學生,其就業滿意度更高;對在校期間企業實習重要性評分更高的畢業生,就業滿意度更高。

心理資本和社會資本評分越高的學生,當年就業薪酬更高。人力資本評分較高的學生,畢業當年就業薪酬無明顯差別。

綜合上述研究結果,本研究的主要結論為:(1)通過實證研究,高職學生中普遍存在自我認知偏差(達克效應),在運用學做交替帶薪實戰型兩輪共12個月的五維企業實習後,可降低高職學生普遍存在的“達克效應”,即自我認知偏差,提高其自我認知客觀性。(2)五維企業實習有助於高職院校畢業生提高心理資本、社會資本和人力資本水準,五維企業實習能正面影響畢業學生當年薪酬收入與就業滿意度,提升其就業品質。心理資本和社會資本對當年畢業生薪酬有顯著積極影響,人力資本對薪酬則無明顯影響。(3)在理論研究與應用實踐基礎上,從五維企業實習對人才培養積極影響的角度構建了“五維企業實習—就業能力提升—降低自我認知偏差—提升就業品質—職業生涯可持續發展”模型,即建立了“學校學習實訓—五維企業認知實習—學校專業學習—五維企業專業頂崗實習—直接上崗就業—可持續職業生涯發展”的五維企業實習模式。(4)間接證明了實行品德人格指引力、生存生活適應力、職業專業競爭力、實踐應用執行力和學習進化創新力驅動的五維教育培養模式對高職學生自我認知客觀性和就業品質有一定積極影響作用。

本研究的主要局限之一在於僅僅採用廣西經濟職業學院的兩屆學生的相關資料來檢驗假設,缺乏其他職業院校學生採用五維企業實習模式後產生相關效果、資料後的實證比較研究。因此,在今後的研究中,隨著五維教育培養模式的推廣,可將研究物件拓展到其他應用五維教育培養模式和五維企業實習的院校學生,引入其他過程變數,研究五維教育培養模式及五維企業實習對學生個人全面發展作用機理。同時,協力廠商機構麥可思資料(成都)有限公司的追蹤研究表明,2018屆和2019屆(2016級)學院畢業生畢業後半年至一年半時的自主創業率達6.1%和6.7%,明顯高於同期同區域以及全國同類型高職院校畢業生約3.5%的平均水準;同批2018屆畢業生平均月收入達4210元,明顯高於同類型同期廣西高職院校畢業生平均月收入3447元水準,對支持本研究結論有一定參考價值。對於五維教育培養模式及五維企業實習與高職學生自主創業率之間可能存在的相關性,還有待進一步研究探討。
The penetration of higher education in China has now reached more than 50% of the population. With the rapid development of economy and society, current talent training models of vocational colleges do not meet the demand from Chinese corporate employers. College graduates show inaccurate self-assessment (Dunning–Kruger effect; D-K effect) and fall short in psychological capital, social capital and human capital. How to resolve such issues and improve the graduates’ competences has attracted a lot of attentions both from academics and practices. Many existing vocational training models incorporate work-based learnings, especially paid internship, as one key teaching and training element.
Previous literature on the topic mainly focuses on macro perspectives and lacks empirical investigations from a micro level. The "School-Work (STW)" and "School-Career (STC)" relationship by American scholars indicating the training philosophy of integrating practice and education, student-oriented, and lifelong training. Other influential vocational education modes include dual education system from Germany and work-study alternation mode from Britain. In recent years, more and more Chinese scholars devote to the innovation of vocational training programs and exploring effective vocational training models. It is important to empirically explore the vocational education model (especially in private vocational colleges) in China. It is especially valuable, both academically and in practice, to understand how does paid internship impact vocational students’ employment competitiveness, and help correct their self-assessment bias (D-K effect).

This study first reviews the literature on enterprise internships and factors that impact on students’ employment and development. We focus on the effect of paid internship on the employment and career development of vocational students. We adopt a five-dimensional education model to analyze the internal mechanism and propose theoretical hypotheses. We follow the training and employment paths of 1,700 students (Class 2016 and 2017) from Guangxi Economic Vocational College for five years and test the hypotheses using structural equation modeling, multiple regression analysis, correlation analysis, etc. Our major findings include:

(1)The self-evaluation scores of the students significantly vary before and after participating in the first internship. Specifically, the scores after the internship are lower than the score before the internship, indicating that the "D-K effect" bias exists among students before the internship. This result is consistent with the existing literature, and further demonstrates that the "D-K effect" exists among the students from private vocational college.

(2)After the three corporate-paid internships, which last for 12 months in total, the level of psychological capital, social capital, and human capital rated by both the students themselves and their teachers are all improved. The participating enterprises also offer consistent and positive evaluations. The results show that the five-dimensional corporate-paid internship can significantly improve the psychological capital, social capital, and human capital of the vocational students. The internships also correct the "D-K effect" of the vocational students.

(3)The self- and teacher-rated scores of psychological capital, social capital, and human capital are positively associated with the employment satisfaction of the students. A higher score of the importance of the paid internships leads to a higher employment satisfaction of the graduates.

(4)Students with self- and teacher-rated scores of psychological capital, social capital, and human capital receive a higher salary in their employment.

Based on the above research findings, we identify the following major insights: (1) First, the implementation of work-based learning as well as the three-round five-dimensional corporate-paid internships help correct the "D-K effect" that is common among vocational students. It helps improve students to conduct to self-evaluation more objectively, which in turn helps them enter the workplace smoothly and improve their satisfaction about employment. (2) Second, based on the positive impact of the five-dimensional corporate-paid internships on vocational training, the study constructs a framework of "corporate-paid internship --- job role switching --- students’ overall development of psychological, social and human capital --- career adaptation --- smooth transition from school to workplace". The framework enriches the existing literature on vocational education and human resource management. (3) Third, our study proposes a measurement for the impact of paid internship on vocational school students’ career growth, and empirically tests its reliability and validity. The study also identify factors affecting the career development of vocational college graduates. (4) Forth, the study analyzes the influence of the five-dimensional corporate-paid internship model on student development, as well as on their transition from school to workplace. The findings expand the application of vocational education theory in the field of human resources. (5) Finally, the study indirectly illustrates the positive effect of the five-dimensional education training model on the overall development of vocational students and the sustainable development of their careers.

This research is not without limitation. First, the empirical data is mainly from the graduates from Guangxi Economic Vocational College. It is hard to conduct comparative study on the effect of the five-dimensional corporate-paid internship model on other colleges and universities. In order to promote the five-dimensional education training model, our future research will examine the model in other colleges and incorporate other influential variables to explore their impact and moderating effect on the five-dimensional education model. We will further investigate the mechanism of how paid internship influences the overall development of students.

Second, research from McKinsey shows that the proportion of students in our study (Class 2016 and 2017) who own a start-up company half a year after graduation is 6.1% and 6.7%, respectively. This is higher than the average level, i.e. about 3.5%, of all vocational colleges in the same region of the country within the same period. The average start-up monthly salary for the 2018 graduates (4210 RMB) is also significantly higher than that of all vocational college graduates (3447 RMB) in Guangxi Province. This correlation between the five-dimensional education model and the start-up rate of college students needs further verification.

    Research areas

  • Professional talent training mode, Five-dimensional education training mode, Five-dimensional internship, self-assessment bias, Dunning-Kruger Effect, Employability, Employment quality, Psychological capital, Social capital, Human capital