社區建設對居民居住幸福感的影響研究 - 以江蘇省啟東市商品住宅社區為例

Impact of Community Construction on Residents' Residential Happiness: A Case Study of the Commercial Housing Community in Qidong City, Jiangsu Province

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Award date28 Apr 2021

Abstract

伴隨著中國經濟改革開放以來的迅猛騰飛和中國房地產市場在商品房出現在市場後的蓬勃發展,房地產企業從單純的樓房建築開發逐步發展為不斷提供消費者良好居住環境和提供多樣化的服務的供給者。與此同時,和中國社會共同成長的消費者,在房產購買時也從簡單的購置居住房屋,轉而逐漸尋求更多能為生活提供幸福感的社區與住宅產品。因此,如何建設出能夠提高社區居民幸福感的住宅社區,成為了這一輪中國消費升級中,房地產企業不得不思考的問題。然而,梳理現有的相關理論,有關市場行銷領域的研究並沒有在房地產和住宅社區建設方面提出較好的建議和相關指導。因此本研究以幸福感為行銷切入視角,運用相關學科理論,探討了住宅社區建設對居民居住幸福感的作用機制和影響因素,更考慮互聯網技術和科技水準對這些機制的調節作用。本次研究當中,在文獻綜述的基礎上,融入了實踐調查、案例介紹以及定性分析等多種方式,進而得出以下幾個結論:

(1)在商品住宅的購買和居住場景下,社區建設是指消費者感知到的所居住社區的各項指標,包括社區品質、社區價值和社區評價三個方面。其中社區品質是指消費者對社區提供的客觀存在的軟硬體的認知;社區價值是指居民生活在社區中,對社區的價值觀的認同與一致性;社區評價是指多在主觀層面上的社區居民對社區的額外服務和附加價值等的感知。面對不可忽略的互聯網技術,還要考慮在數位化時代背景下社區的虛擬化程度對變數之間影響的調節作用。構成社區品質的主要因素有社區交通、社區安保、社區綠化和建築品質,構成社區價值的主要因素有社區收入水準和社區價值觀念,構成社區評價的主要因素有醫療衛生、住宅品牌、社區治理,構成社區虛擬化程度的主要因素有社區科技水準和社區互聯網水準。

(2) 在人們生活當中,需要使用很多方面的物品,住宅是較為重要也是最為常見的物品之一,從住宅的購買(租賃)或使用的角度來說,可以將幸福感劃分成兩部分:①主觀幸福感,即按照相應的評價標準,從多個角度出發,對個人的生活狀況展開全方位的評估,其中,最重要的標準有兩個,一個為是對生活的滿意情況,另一個為住宅的情緒體驗感。在商品住宅消費過程中或消費後,享受服務和參與社區建設持續一段時間以後,消費者對社區的品質、價值觀和形成的一系列認知,這種認知帶有一定的客觀色彩,是來源於經驗、口碑和個人需要等形成的 預期和實際感受相對比以後的結果,是顧客對產品、品牌和企業的認識過程,包含了針對產品本身的產品品質認知,針對購物過程的服務品質認知,以及針對品牌和企業形象層面的品牌認知。②社會幸福感,即個人在自身生活的基礎上,與社會之間的關係狀況,是一種社會生活導向的幸福感,是指個任對自己和其他人、集體、社會之間關係的品質及其生活環境和社會功能的自我評估與評價,在商品住宅的購買和居住場景下,構成社會幸福感的主要因素是社區整合程度、社區融入、社區貢獻和社區依戀。

(3) 社區品質、社區價值和社區評價三個變數分別代表了房地產商品住宅在進行社區建設後消費者對品質、價值認同和內外部評價的三個層次的認知。在探究對消費者主觀幸福感的影響因素時,在單獨回歸時,社區品質對於消費者主觀幸福感有很大影響,在加入社區價值認知後,社區品質的回歸係數有所下降,但降低的幅度不大,這可能是由於增加解釋變數所引起的回歸係數的自然下降,而當加入社區評價後,即將社區品質、社區價值和社區評價放入到同一個回歸方程中時,社區品質的回歸係數顯著下降,社區評價甚至對社會幸福感產生了負向的影響,社區價值對於消費者主觀幸福感影響變得最大,社區評價其次,社區品質的影響相對較小且變得得不顯著。社區虛擬化程度對社區品質、社區價值和社區評價同消費者主觀幸福感的影響關係中均具有正向的調節作用,這說明社區虛擬化這一因素可以通過互聯網技術和智慧社區的建設過程較為有效的增強商品住宅社區消費者個人層面的幸福感。
With the rapid development due to China's economic reform, booming of China's real estate market after the emergence of commercial housing, real estate enterprises have gradually developed from simple building construction to continuous supply the consumers with good living environment and diversified services. At the same time, consumers who grow up together with Chinese society are also gradually seeking for community and residential products that can provide happiness for life from simple purchase of residential housing. Therefore, how to build a residential community that can improve the well-being of community residents has become a problem that real estate enterprises must think about in this round of consumption upgrading in China. However, combing the existing relevant theories, the research in the field of marketing has not put forward good suggestions and guidance in the construction of real estate and residential communities. Therefore, this study takes well-being as the marketing perspective, and uses relevant discipline theories to explore the mechanism and influencing factors of residential community construction on Residents' living well-being, considering the regulatory role of Internet technology and technology level on these mechanisms. In this study, based on literature review, a variety of methods, such as practical investigation, case introduction and qualitative analysis, are integrated into the study:

(1) In the context of commercial housing purchase and living, community construction refers to the indicators of the community that consumers perceive, including community quality, community value and community evaluation. Among them, community quality refers to consumers' cognition of the objective existence of software and hardware provided by the community; community value refers to the residents' recognition and consistency of community values when they live in the community; community evaluation refers to the perception of community residents on the additional services and added values of the community on the subjective level. Facing the Internet technology that cannot be ignored, we should also consider the moderating effect of the degree of community virtualization on the impact of variables in the digital era. The main factors of community quality include community traffic, community security, community greening and building quality. The main factors of community value are community income level and community values. The main factors of community evaluation are health care, housing brand and community governance. The main factors of community virtualization include community science and technology level and community Internet level.

(2) People need to use many kinds of goods in their life. Residence is one of the most important and common items. From the perspective of house purchase (lease) or use, happiness can be divided into two parts: ① subjective well-being, that is, according to the corresponding evaluation standards, from multiple angles, to carry out a comprehensive evaluation of individual's living conditions. There are two most important criteria, one is satisfaction with life, and the other is emotional experience of residence. In the process of or after the consumption of commercial housing, after enjoying the service and participating in the community construction for a period, consumers have a series of cognition about the quality, values and formation of the community. This kind of cognition has a certain objective color, which is formed from experience, word-of-mouth and personal needs The result of the comparison between the expected and the actual feelings is the customer's cognition process of the product, brand and enterprise, including the product quality cognition for the product itself, the service quality cognition for the shopping process, and the brand cognition for the brand and enterprise image level. ② Social well-being, that is, the relationship between individuals and society on the basis of their own lives, is a kind of social life oriented well-being. It refers to the self-evaluation of the relationship quality, living environment and social function between themselves and others, collectives and society. In the shopping and living scenes of commercial housing, the main factor of social well-being is community integration degree, community integration, community contribution and community attachment.

(3) The three variables of community quality, community value and community evaluation respectively represent the three levels of cognition of quality, value identification and internal and external evaluation of real estate commercial housing after community construction. When exploring the influencing factors on the subjective well-being of consumers, the community quality has a great impact on the subjective well-being of consumers. After the community value cognition is added, the regression coefficient of community quality decreases, but the decrease is not large. This may be due to the natural decline of regression coefficient caused by the increase of explanatory variables, When the community quality, community value and community evaluation are put into the same regression equation, the regression coefficient of community quality decreases significantly, and community evaluation even has a negative impact on social well-being. Community value has the greatest impact on consumers' subjective well-being, followed by community evaluation, and the impact of community quality is relatively small and not significant. The degree of community virtualization has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between community quality, community value, community evaluation and consumers' subjective well-being, which indicates that community virtualization can effectively enhance consumers' personal well-being through Internet technology and the construction process of smart community.

    Research areas

  • community construction, well-being, community virtualization, commercial housing