中國民營企業間信任機制研究- 資源依賴與關係網絡嵌入

The Study of Trust Mechanism in Chinese Private Enterprises - Based on Resource Dependence and Network Embeddedness Perspective

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis

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Author(s)

  • Yuntao HUANG

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Award date14 Jul 2016

Abstract

“民無信不立”,“信”一直是中國傳統文化中的個人立身之本。古人之間的交往一直秉承“與朋友交,言而有信。”但同時,古人也提醒在與人交往時不應隨便做出承諾,“輕諾必寡信”,而應“言必信,行必果。” 古人的智慧一直深深的影響著我們中國人千百年來的爲人處事之道,但是,在現今社會,人們在利益的誘惑下,個人和企業已經很難做到“重信輕利”。近幾年不斷曝出的企業誠信事件,例如三鹿奶粉“三聚氰胺”事件、雙匯火腿腸“瘦肉精”事件、餓了麽外賣“黑餐廳”事件等,這些企業誠信事件已經嚴重影響到中國企業的公信力,也影響了企業之間交往的信任關係。
新中國的民營企業發展歷史不長,相比于國有企業,中國民營企業長期處在規模不大和資源短缺劣勢中。企業間的信任,與其說是一種關係,倒不如說是一種資産,因其對于企業而言具有極大的商業價值。“互相信任才會减少企業交易成本”,民營企業如果正確把握和建立企業間信任及合作關係,不僅可以幫助企業增强實力、擴大規模、贏得良好聲譽,還有利于民營企業的長期可持續發展。
本文以中國民營企業間的“信任”關係作爲研究切入點,從資源依賴視角和社會網絡嵌入視角出發,基于企業視角探討了民營企業間信任的影響機制,進而發現民營企業間信任關係的其他影響因素,包括“圈子”文化和“面子”思想在上述機制中的影響作用,并結合民營企業間的實際交往狀况研究資源依賴對信任關係的影響。本文的主要研究內容包括以下幾個方面:
(1)民營企業家之間的朋友關係對個人間信任以及組織間信任的影響機制;(2)資源依賴對民營企業組織間信任的影響;(3)“圈子”文化、“面子”思想,以及政治關聯的影響。
本文擬解决的問題是:中國民營企業間信任關係的影響因素如何?企業間交往對于建立信任關係的重要性如何?中國傳統的“圈子”和“面子”文化,以及當前民營企業家熱衷于參與政治活動,是否可以爲民營企業建立信任合作關係帶來正向影響?
針對以上問題,本文以中國各行業的民營企業作爲調查對象,在借鑒國內外研究成果、綜合專家教授的意見和作者多年行業實際工作經驗的基礎上,設計出《中國民營企業間信任機制研究問卷》,并在小樣本測試的基礎上進行了修正與完善。在大樣本調查階段,本文利用各地的民營企業家協會和各行業協會開會的時機,指派專員對與會的民營企業家發放問卷,進行簡單隨機抽樣,一個企業只進行一次問卷調研。共發放問卷418份,獲得有效樣本324個,在數據的處理過程中采取探索性因子分析、確定型因子分析、獨立樣本T檢驗、回歸分析等多種方法,在檢驗數據信度及效度的同時對假設和模型進行分析和驗證。
與現有的企業間信任與合作的研究成果相比較,本文的結論主要體現在以下幾個方面:
(1)民營企業家個人間信任在朋友關係對組織間信任的影響中起中介作用。在朋友關係對組織間信任的影響機制中,本文發現了二者間顯著的正相關關係。進一步的,本文通過中介作用的檢驗機制發現,民營企業家個人間信任在朋友關係對組織間信任的影響中起到了完全的中介作用。上述結論幫助大家從“朋友關係好辦事”的傳統觀念中走出來,并不是因爲民營企業家之間的朋友關係而直接導致企業組織間信任,而是因爲朋友關係更加容易建立起個人間信任關係,進而産生組織間信任;(2)民營企業間交往的制度保障是關鍵一環。通常大家都認爲資源依賴可以導致企業間合作的加深,進而産生信任關係。本文的研究把企業間交往的質量與頻率作爲調節變量,研究其在資源依賴對組織間信任影響中的調節作用。數據回歸結果表明交往的質量與頻率上上述機制中具有顯著的正向調節作用,表明其在民營企業建立信任關係過程中具有重要的作用。結合我國民營企業制度并不完善的實際情况,企業間交往活動通常沒有完善的企業制度予以保障。本文的研究結論有助于推動我國民營企業完善企業制度,提高企業間交往的質量與頻率;(3)傳統文化對企業組織間信任關係的建立影響方向不同。通常認爲中國人受“圈子”文化和“面子”思想影響,形成典型的“熟人社會”。但是,本文的研究結論發現了不一樣的觀點。本文結合“面子”和“圈子”的觀點,引入臉面約束的概念,研究具有同學或同鄉關係的民營企業家之間是否更加容易建立起個人間信任關係。資料分析得出了與原假設相反的結果,認爲臉面約束不僅不能促進民營企業家個人間信任關係的産生,反而會减弱上述關係産生的可能性。此外,社會擔保和政治擔保對信任關係的産生都具有顯著的正向調節作用,原假設獲得驗證。
本文與現有的國內外關于企業間信任關係的研究相比,創新之處主要體現在以下幾點:
(1)構建了中國民營企業信任機制的影響機制的理論模型;(2)明確了中國民營企業組織間信任關係的影響因素,弄清了民營企業家之間的個人朋友關係是如何轉化爲組織間信任關係;(3)從資源依賴理論出發,研究發現,民營企業由于資源不足或制度不完善,往往沒有建立起完善的組織間信息交換體制,這也成爲制約我國民營企業資源交換效果的一個主要因素;(4)發現了“殺熟”現象在我國民營企業群體中的影響,這已經極大的改變了我國傳統社會人際交往以“面子”作爲約束的特點,對人際間社會交往方式起到了嚴重的影響;(5)選擇中國各個行業的民營企業作爲作爲研究樣本,基于資源依賴和社會網絡嵌入理論進行分析,爲我國民營企業間交往現狀提供了一手分析數據。
信任的研究在國外早已得到學術界的普遍關注,但在國內仍然處于起步階段。隨著中國國際影響力的不斷增强,中國企業在全球市場扮演者越來越重要的角色,國內外學術界對中國情境下企業的商業活動研究越來越重視。但是,當前研究主要基于西方文化和理論,大多數是基于西方企業作爲研究樣本,得出的結論往往也只適用于西方社會情境中。本文通過對中國民營企業間的信任産生機制進行研究,基于中國的傳統文化和民營企業的實際情况,有助于推動對于我國企業間信任領域的研究,并且研究結論對于我國民營企業間的交往活動具有一定的借鑒和指導作用。
“People have no trust can’t stand”, “trust” has always been a personal foundation in Chinese traditional culture. The interaction between ancients has always been following the principle of “making to friends, true to its words” 6. At the meantime, the ancients also warned people not to make promises while making friends, “easy promise worth less credit” 7, “we must be true in word and resolute in deed”8. The manners we behave for hundreds of years has always been influenced by the wisdom of ancients, however, nowadays, single person and enterprise can hardly perform the principle of “value trust than profits” under the temptation of interests. In recent years, many credit events of enterprises had been exposed, such as “Melamine” event of Sanlu Milk Power, “Clenbuterol” event of Shuanghui Ham Sausage and “Black Resturant” event of Ele.me, which had severely affected the credibility of Chinese companies and the trust between them.
The development history of Chinese private enterprises is rather short. Comparing to state-owned enterprises, the disadvantages of small scale and lacking of resources had existed for a long time. The trust between enterprises is an asset rather than a relationship, for its great commercial values. “Mutual trust can reduce the transaction cost” 9, it can not only reinforce their strength, enlarge scale and win good reputation, but also do benefit to their sustainable development in the long run if the private enterprises can properly handle and build trust and cooperation relationships with each other.
From the view of resource dependence and social network, this paper regards the “trust” between Chinese private enterprises as the starting point of the study. Based on the corporate perspective, it discusses the influencing mechanism of the trust between private enterprises and further finds other affecting factors, including “circle” culture and “face” idea. Besides, it works on the impact of resource dependence on trust relationship by combining the actual interactions between private enterprises. The main contents of this study consist of several aspects as follows:
The influencing mechanism of the friendship between private enterprise owners on individual and organizational trust; (2) the impact of the organizational trust of private enterprise owners on resource dependence; (3) the impact of “circle” culture, “face” idea and political correlations.
The problems that this paper intends to address are: what are the factors that influence the trust between Chinese private enterprise owners? How important the business between companies to building trust relationship with each other? Whether the Chinese traditional “circle” and “face” culture and the political activities that temporary private entrepreneurs are keen on, can have a positive impact on building trust among enterprises?
As for the problems above, this paper considers the private enterprises in all realms as study objects. We have referred to all research results both in China and abroad and integrated opinions of experts and professors. We design the questionnaire on the trust mechanism among Chinese private enterprises on the basis of years of practical working experience of the author. In addition, we conducted the revision and consummation on the basis of small sample tests. In the phase of large samples, this paper made use of the chance of meeting held by private entrepreneurs’ association and association in all aspects and appointed commissioner to conduct a survey on private entrepreneurs which was a simple random sampling and each company only got one chance. We sent out 418 questionnaires in total and got 324 valid samples. During data processing, many methods had been adopted, such as exploratory factor analysis, determined factor analysis, individual sample T testing and regression analysis. We also analyzed and validated the hypothesis and model when testing the reliability and effectiveness of the data.
Comparing to the existed research result on the trust and cooperation among enterprises, the conclusion of this paper is mainly manifested in the following aspects:
The personal trust among entrepreneurs works as intermediary on the impact of the friendship on the organizational trust. In the influencing mechanism above, this paper finds there is an obvious positive correlation between them. Furthermore, this paper ascertains the conclusion above through the testing mechanism of the intermediary. The result above helps us out of the traditional concept of “friendship solve problems”. It’s not due to the friendship between private entrepreneurs that can directly leads to the organizational trust among enterprises, but because friendship can make it easier to build personal trust which further bring in organizational trust; (2) a crucial link is the institutional guarantee for the relationship between private entrepreneurs. It is commonly thought that resource dependence can further business cooperation and then result in trust. This study regards the quality and frequency of relationship between enterprises as the adjusting variable and works on its regulation effect in the impact of the resource dependence on the organizational trust. The results of the data regression reveal the quality and frequency of business activity regulates the impact remarkably and positively and that it plays an important role in building trust among private enterprises. Combined with the actual situations of an imperfect private enterprise institution, the business activities among enterprises can’t get affluent guarantee. Our study results can help to promote the improvement of the private enterprise institution and enhance the quality and frequency of commercial activities; (3) the influencing direction appears to be different concerning the impact of the traditional culture on the trust among companies and organizations. We commonly thought that the typical “acquaintance society” is formed while we are affected by “circle” culture and the ideas of “face”. However, this paper finds something different. Integrating the viewpoint above, this paper introduces the concept of face restriction and study whether the personal trust can be built easier when the private entrepreneurs are classmates or townsmen. The data analysis gets a result opposite to the original hypothesis, that is, face restriction can hardly promote personal trust among entrepreneurs and it will reduce the possibility of the establishment of the above relationship. In addition, social and political guarantee can adjust the trust relationship positively and remarkably, which also verifies the original hypothesis.
Comparing to existed research on the trust among enterprises both in China and abroad, its innovation mainly lies in the following aspects:
Constructing the theoretical model of the influencing mechanism of the trust mechanism among Chinese private enterprises; (2) defining the influencing factor of the trust among Chinese private enterprises and organizations; (3) from the theory of resource dependence, this study finds that private enterprises normally haven’t established perfect exchange mechanism for organizational information which also becomes one main restriction factor for the exchange effectiveness of the resources among private enterprises in China; (4) finding the impact of the “cheating on acquaintance” on the private enterprises which has enormously changed the restriction of “face” in traditional social interpersonal communication and caused severe damage to it. (5) Choosing Chinese private enterprises in all aspects as research samples and providing first-hand data on the status quo of the communication among Chinese private enterprises based on the theoretical analysis of resource dependence and social network embedded.
The study on trust has won widespread attention in other countries, but it is still under the starting phase in China. With the continuous reinforcement of China’s international influence, Chinese enterprises are going to play a more and more important role in the global market and more and more attention has been drawn on the commercial activities under the Chinese context. However, the temporary researches are mainly based on the western culture and theories and taking western companies as study samples which makes the results can only apply to that social context. This paper studies the generation mechanism of the trust among Chinese private enterprises. On the basis of Chinese traditional culture and the actual situations of private enterprises, it helps to promote the research on this realm and its results can act as reference and guidance for the business activities among Chinese private enterprises to some extent.