Variations in PM2.5, TSP, BC, and trace gases (NO2, SO2, and O3) between haze and non-haze episodes in winter over Xi’an, China

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Author(s)

  • Zhenxing Shen
  • Junji Cao
  • Renjian Zhang
  • Leiming Zhang
  • R.-J. Huang
  • Chenjia Zheng
  • Linqing Wang
  • Suixin Liu
  • Hongmei Xu
  • Chunli Zheng
  • Pingping Liu

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)64-71
Journal / PublicationAtmospheric Environment
Volume112
Online published15 Apr 2015
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2015
Externally publishedYes

Abstract

To investigate chemical profiles and formation mechanisms of aerosol particles in winter haze events, daily PM2.5 and TSP, 5-min BC, and 15-min trace gases (SO2, NO2, and O3) were measured continuously during Dec. 1–31, 2012 in Xi'an. Chemical analysis was also conducted for nine water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, NH4+ , K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, F, Cl, NO3 , and SO24 ), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and eight carbon fractions (OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, EC1, EC2, EC3, and OP) in both PM2.5 and TSP samples. Higher levels of TSP, PM2.5, BC, SO2, and NO2, and lower levels of O3 were observed during haze periods in comparison with non-haze days. The sum of the major secondary ionic species (NH4+ , NO3 , and SO24 ) in PM2.5 or TSP during haze periods was about 3 times of that during non-haze days. Ion balance calculations showed that PM2.5 samples were acidic during haze periods and were close to neutral during non-haze days. The mean carbon levels were 52.9 μg m−3 and 82.1 μg m−3 in PM2.5 and TSP, respectively, during haze events, which were ∼1.5 times of those during non-haze days. The diurnal variations of BC during non-haze days showed a bimodal distribution with two peaks coincided with traffic rush hours. This was not the case during haze periods, which exhibited a relatively smooth pattern but with high concentration levels, providing evidence of particle accumulation. The ratios of SO24 /EC, NO3 /EC, and NH4+ /EC sharply increased during haze periods, indicating the important pathway of secondary inorganic species formation through aqueous-phase transformation under high relative humidity condition. This study also highlights that wintertime secondary organic carbon (SOC) formation can be an important contributor to carbonaceous aerosol, especially during haze periods.

Research Area(s)

  • Aerosol formation, Inorganic aerosol, Organic aerosol, Secondary aerosol, Urban environment

Citation Format(s)

Variations in PM2.5, TSP, BC, and trace gases (NO2, SO2, and O3) between haze and non-haze episodes in winter over Xi’an, China. / Zhang, Qian; Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Renjian; Zhang, Leiming; Huang, R.-J.; Zheng, Chenjia; Wang, Linqing; Liu, Suixin; Xu, Hongmei; Zheng, Chunli; Liu, Pingping.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 112, 07.2015, p. 64-71.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review