Use of biocrude derived from woody biomass to substitute phenol at a high-substitution level for the production of biobased phenolic resol resins

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Author(s)

  • Shuna Cheng
  • Ian D'Cruz
  • Zhongshun Yuan
  • Mingcun Wang
  • Mark Anderson
  • Mathew Leitch

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2743-2751
Journal / PublicationJournal of Applied Polymer Science
Volume121
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 5 Sept 2011
Externally publishedYes

Abstract

Phenolic bio-oil produced by the direct liquefaction of Eastern white pine (Pinus Strobus L.) sawdust in a hot-compressed ethanol-water (1:1 w/w) medium at 300 °C was used to partially substitute for phenol in the synthesis of bio-oil-phenol-formaldehyde (BPF) resol resins. Bio-based resol resins with high levels of phenol substitution (up to 75 wt%) could be used as plywood adhesives because of the low molecular weights found for the phenolic bio-oil (weight-average molecular weight = 1072 g/mol, number-average molecular weight = 342 g/mol). The properties of the BPF resol resins were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, and thermogravimetric analysis. All of the experimental BPF resins possessed broad molecular weight distributions but had similar chemical/thermal properties compared to a conventional phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resol resin reference (or 0 wt % BPF resin). The BPFs exhibited the typical properties of a thermosetting PF resin, for example, an exothermic curing temperature of 140-150°C and an acceptable residual carbon yield of 48-72 wt % nonvolatile content at 700°C. The experimental BPFs were applied as adhesives in the assembly of plywood, and then, the dry/wet tensile strengths were evaluated. The tensile strengths of the dry plywood samples bonded with the BPF resins up to a high ratio value of 75 wt % bio-oil exceeded or were comparable to that of the conventional pure PF resin adhesive. All of the BPF-resin-bonded plywood samples gave wet tensile strengths comparable to those of the conventional PF adhesive. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Research Area(s)

  • adhesives, biopolymers, curing of polymers, resins, thermal properties

Bibliographic Note

Publication details (e.g. title, author(s), publication statuses and dates) are captured on an “AS IS” and “AS AVAILABLE” basis at the time of record harvesting from the data source. Suggestions for further amendments or supplementary information can be sent to lbscholars@cityu.edu.hk.

Citation Format(s)

Use of biocrude derived from woody biomass to substitute phenol at a high-substitution level for the production of biobased phenolic resol resins. / Cheng, Shuna; D'Cruz, Ian; Yuan, Zhongshun et al.
In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 121, No. 5, 05.09.2011, p. 2743-2751.

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review