论著作权合理使用制度的开放化路径 : 以 “中间层次” 一般条款的引入为中心

On the Open Approach to the Copyright Fair Use Regime : Focusing on the Introduction of the ‘Intermediate Level’ General Clause

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalNot applicablepeer-review

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Detail(s)

Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)58-69
Number of pages12
Journal / Publication知识产权
Volume2019
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 20 May 2019

Abstract

对于著作权合理使用制度而言,传统的封闭式列举立法模式已难以适应当今科技的迅猛发 展。《著作权法修改草案(送审稿)》引入了合理使用的一般条款,实现了向完全开放式立法模式的急剧转变,也留下了较大的法律适用空白。一般条款本质上属于一种法律漏洞,引入一般条款也意味着具体规则制定主体的移转,因此仅引入 “总括式” 或 “兜底式” 一般条款并不足以解决问题。建议同时引入对合理使用情形作具体类型化的 “中间层次” 一般条款,由此建立 “总括式一般条款—中间层次一般条款—具体合理使用情形列举条款” 的三层次规范结构。日本最新修法对合理使用情形作了 “无害使用” “轻微使用” “公共政策目的下的使用” 三类型区分,并采用领域分割下的 “总则+列举+兜底” 复合规范结构,形成了一种新的立法范式,可提供理论参照,但也存在中间层次一般条款独挑大梁,过于强调领域分割等问题。在我国相关规则的形成中,需要通过具有较高开放性的民主协商平台把握本国实际需求,尊重市场博弈在其中的重要作用。
The traditional closed-list model of copyright fair use has been greatly challenged in a digital age. The last revision draft of the third-round amendment of the Copyright Law of China took a radical move by introducing an open style general clause of fair use, leaving ample empty space in terms of application. Open style general clause are essentially legal loopholes, so that the introduction of that represents the shift of rule-making power. In that sense, to merely introduce a “catch-all” general clause will not solve the problem. It is suggested that “middle level” general clauses could be simultaneously introduced, so that the fair use conditions can be categorized in a more specific way, by which a three-level structure of rules could be built. The 2018 amendment to the Copyright Law of Japan subdivided fair use circumstances into three categories: “harmless use”, “minor use” and “use for public policy purposes”, and employed a composite structure that consists of “general clause + list + catch-all”, making it a worthy reference for China. But we should not overlook its problems such as the non-existence of a general clause, and the overemphasized division based on fields. In forming our fair use model, we need to identify our own needs via a more opened democratic negotiation platform, and respect the role of market power in it.

Research Area(s)

  • 著作权法, 合理使用, 著作权限制, 一般条款, 转换性使用, Copyright Law, fair use, copyright limitations, general clause, transformative use