理性对“合理信仰”的批判

Rational Critique of “Reasonable Belief”

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Detail(s)

Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)117-128
Number of pages12
Journal / Publication北京大学学报 (哲学社会科学版)
Volume58
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2021

Abstract

人类都有对美好生活和理想社会的追求,但现实往往并不完美,甚至充满冲突、苦难与邪恶。在西方,上帝之至善与世界上恶之存在永远是一个矛盾,不同时代的思想家和哲人都曾作出不同努力,去理解和解答这永恒的问题。中世纪神学经过文艺复兴和宗教改革,失去了奥古斯丁时代的权威,而17世纪和尤其是18世纪的启蒙时代,理性逐渐取代了信仰。但理性与信仰、科学与宗教之间,有一个复杂互动的过程,18世纪理性信仰(reasonable belief)的出现,产生了接受现实的"乐观主义"理论,认为凡存在的皆必合理。启蒙思想家伏尔泰以讽刺为武器,在《赣第德》这篇哲理小说中,对这种"乐观主义"作出尖锐的批判。在对西方从中世纪到17世纪和18世纪思想的变化进行梳理,探讨伏尔泰对理性信仰的批判,探讨《赣第德》所包含的思想意义。
The utopian desire for a better life and an ideal society is universal, but there has always been the problem of the imperfect reality and the existence of conflicts, sufferings and evils. In the West, there has been the dilemma between the good of God and the presence of evil in the world, and thinkers and philosophers have tried to find an answer to that perennial question. The Augustinian orthodoxy lost its power after the Renaissance and the Reformation, and reason gradually replaced faith in the 17th and the 18th centuries. Reason and faith, or science and religion, interacted in a complex process, in which “reasonable belief” arose to present an optimistic acquiescence of reality and the belief that “whatever is, is right.” In Candide (《赣第德》), the Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire (伏尔泰) launched a strong critique of such optimism. This essay will provide a survey of the changes in philosophical thought in the West from the medieval times to the 17th and the 18th centuries, discuss Voltaire’s critique of “reasonable belief,” and explore the significance of Candide as a great literary work best representing the core ideas of the major Enlightenment philosophical tradition.

Research Area(s)

  • 理性, 合理信仰, 乐观主义, 乌托邦, 莱布尼兹, 伏尔泰, rationality, reasonable belief, optimism, Utopia, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (莱布尼兹), Voltaire(伏尔泰)