著作权法修订中的“用户创造内容”问题 : 以中国内地与香港的比较为视角

User-generated Contents Problem in Amendment Process of Copyright Law

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalNot applicablepeer-review

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Detail(s)

Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)123-135
Journal / Publication法學評論
Volume2019
Issue number1 (总第213)
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jan 2019

Abstract

"用户创造内容"是随着互联网以及相伴而来的兴趣社区的出现而引发的一种人类创作活动。不论按中国内地法律还是按香港地区法律,多数"用户创造内容"创作行为存在侵犯著作权人专有权利的可能。但是,"用户创造内容"也与著作权保护例外制度与司法实践中发展出来的"转换性使用"密切相关。为应对数字和网络技术对传统著作权制度带来的挑战,中国内地启动了对《著作权法》的第三次修订,于2014年6月公布了《送审稿》,对著作权保护例外进行了一定程度的调整。香港地区于2014年6月提出了《2014年版权(修订)条例草案》。《2014年草案》既通过规定"向公众传播方式侵犯版权",将所规制之侵权传播行为由仅限于有线、无线和广播等特定形式的传播,扩张至以任何电子形式进行的传播,又规定了戏仿、讽刺、营造滑稽和模仿等版权保护例外。与内地《送审稿》之权利限制相比,香港《2014年草案》更为合理,值得借鉴。就戏仿等之外其他形式的"用户创造内容",著作权人应提前介入版权产品的市场化阶段,与"用户创造内容"创作者达成良好的沟通与合作。通过转换商业模式、利用授权许可以及"声明"等综合性手段,著作权人才能实现与"用户创造内容"创作者的共赢。
"User-generated content" (UGC) is a type of human creativity action trigged by the Internet and the accompanying online communities of interest. According to the laws in Mainland China and Hong Kong, most UGC are possibly copyright infringements. However, the phenomenon of UGC is also firmly connected to copyright exceptions and the concept of "transformative use" that developed from judicial practices. In order to cope with the challenges brought by the digital and internet technologies to the traditional copyright regime, Mainland China has launched the third revision process to the Copyright Law of China, and published the third draft on June 2014, which adjusted the copyright exceptions part greatly. Hong Kong has proposed its Copyright (Amendment) Bill in 2014. By added a section about "infringement by communicating to pubic", it has expanded the coverage of copyright protection from specific forms of communication to the public to all electronic forms of communication. It also added an extra exception about "parody, satire, caricature and pastiche". Compared with the copyright exceptions part of the said draft of the Copyright Law of China, Hong Kong’s proposal is more reasonable therefore worth considering. For other types of UGC other than parody, it is suggested that the copyright owners should step in early and establish a good communication and cooperation with their UGC creators. Only by updating their commercial models and utilizing legal instruments such as licenses and self-binding announcements, copyright owners can achieve a win-win situation with UGC creators.

Research Area(s)

  • 用户创造内容, 著作权合理使用, 《著作权法》修订, 《版权条例》修订, User-generated Content, Fair Use, Amendment of Copyright Law, Amendment of Copyright Ordinance

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