Tin-lead (SnPb) solder reaction in flip chip technology

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-58
Journal / PublicationMaterials Science and Engineering: R: Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2001
Externally publishedYes


Solder reactions between SnPb and one of the four metals, Cu, Ni, Au, and Pd have been reviewed on the basis of the available data of morphology, thermodynamics, and kinetics. The reactions on both bulk and thin film forms of these metals have been considered and compared. Also the two kinds of reactions, above and below the melting point of the solder, have been considered and compared. The rate of intermetallic compound formation in wetting reactions between the molten solder and the metals is three to four orders of magnitude faster than those between the solid state solder and the metals. The rate is controlled by the morphology of intermetallic compound formation. In the wetting reaction between molten SnPb and Cu or Ni, the intermetallic compound formation has a scallop-type morphology, but in solid state aging, it has a layer-type morphology. There are channels between the scallops, which allow rapid diffusion and rapid rate of compound formation. In the layer-type morphology, the compound layer itself becomes a diffusion barrier to slow down the reaction. Similar morphological changes occur between SnPb and Au or Pd. The stability of scallop-type morphology in wetting reaction and layer-type morphology in solid state aging have been explained by minimization of surface and interfacial energies. The unusually high rate of scallop-type intermetallic compound formation has been explained by the gain of rate of free energy change rather than free energy change. Also included in the review is the use of a stack of thin films as under-bump-metallization, such as Cr/Cu/Au, Al/Ni(V)/Cu, and Cu/Ni alloyed thin films. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

Research Area(s)

  • Flip chip technology, Intermetallic compound formation, Scallop-type morphology, Solder reaction

Bibliographic Note

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