Time-Dependent Switching of Constitutional Dynamic Libraries and Networks from Kinetic to Thermodynamic Distributions

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18560-18569
Journal / PublicationJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number46
Online published12 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - 20 Nov 2019
Externally publishedYes


The distribution of the constituents of a constitutional dynamic library (CDL) may undergo time-dependent changes as a function of the kinetics of the processes generating the CDL from its components. Thus, the constitutional dynamic network (CDN) representing the connections between the constituents changes from a kinetic distribution to the thermodynamic one as a function of time. We investigated the behavior of dynamic covalent libraries (DCLs) of four constituents generated by reversible formation of C═N bonds between four components, 2 aldehydes and 2 amino compounds, both in absence and in the presence of metal cations. The associated [2 × 2] networks underwent time-dependent changes from the initial kinetic distribution to the final thermodynamic one, involving an orthogonal switch from one diagonal to the other diagonal of the square [2 × 2] network leading to a very large change in distribution. The DCL constituents could be switched from kinetic products (imines) to thermodynamic products (oximes or acylhydrazones) based on the reactivities of the components and the thermodynamic stabilities of the constituents without addition of any external effector, solely on the basis of the intrinsic properties of the self-contained system. Such processes were achieved for purely organic DCLs/CDNs as well as for inorganic ones containing two metal cations, the latter changing from the silver(I) complex of an imine (kinetic product) to the zinc(II) complex of a hydrazone (thermodynamic product). The results bear relationship to out-of-equilibrium systems concerning kinetic behavior in adaptive chemistry. © 2019 American Chemical Society.