Three-dimensional spatial stimulus-response (S-R) compatibility for visual signals with hand and foot controls

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)840-848
Journal / PublicationApplied Ergonomics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2010


This study investigated the performance of 24 participants in eight different three-dimensional spatial stimulus-response (S-R) mapping conditions. The stimulus visual signals were positioned at the corners of an imaginary cube, and responses were made by hands and feet. There was a significant interaction of visual signal position and response device position which demonstrated the existence of a strong spatial S-R compatibility effect in the task. Relatively faster reaction times and lower error percentages were obtained for the compatible S-R conditions. The spatial compatibility effect in the up-down dimension was the strongest, and the effect in the left-right dimension was stronger than the effect in the front-rear dimension. The findings of this study could be translated into practical and useful ergonomics recommendations for designing visual displays and control devices in three-dimensional space for improving overall human-machine system performance. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Research Area(s)

  • Control and display, Foot control, Spatial compatibility