The relationship of competitiveness motive on people's happiness through education

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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  • Hoi Yan Cheung
  • Alex W.H. Chan


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-185
Journal / PublicationInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011


This paper applied data from 32 countries to find out the relationship between competitiveness motive and happiness, and results showed that competitiveness motive negatively predicted happiness through public education expenditure. Public education expenditure was found to have a mediation effect between competitiveness motive and happiness. Different variables were used, such as happiness score of 2000-2008, public health expenditure as percentage of GDP in 2001 and 2004, public education expenditure as percentage of GDP in 2001 and 2004, and competitiveness motive score. Overall, countries with high competitiveness motive had low public expenditure on education and thus countries had low happiness scores. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Research Area(s)

  • Competitiveness motive, Cross-country, Happiness, Public education expenditure, Public health expenditure

Citation Format(s)