The Measurement of Stiffness Anisotropy in Clays with Bender Element Tests in the Triaxial Apparatus

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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  • V. Jovičić
  • M. R. Coop


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-10
Journal / PublicationGeotechnical Testing Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1998
Externally publishedYes


The paper presents the results of a program of research investigating the effectiveness of bender elements when used in conjunction with the triaxial apparatus for measuring the anisotropy of small strain stiffness of fine-grained soils. Tests were carried out on both intact and reconstituted samples of London clay and on kaolin up to high stresses. The paper shows that the transverse isotropy of small-strain stiffness that commonly occurs in many soils because of a one-dimensional loading history can be fully investigated in the conventional triaxial apparatus and that London clay is an example of such a soil. The stress-induced component of anisotropy was found to be very small for axi-symmetric loading conditions common to both the apparatus and the in situ state of these soils. In contrast, the inherent or structural anisotropy was much more significant and is shown to be a variable factor resulting from the plastic strain, history and is not related to its natural structure. Consequently, inherent anisotropy is reversible, but the rate of change is very slow when a new regime of stresses is imposed. Inherent anisotropy of the very small strain stiffness also persists long after the plastic strains of the soil have become oriented toward the new stresses.

Research Area(s)

  • Anisotropy, Clays, Dynamics, Elasticity, Fabric/structure of soils, Stiffness