The Expectancy‐Disconfirmation Model and Citizen Satisfaction with Public Services : A Meta‐analysis and an Agenda for Best Practice

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)147-159
Journal / PublicationPublic Administration Review
Issue number1
Online published25 Feb 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022



The expectancy‐disconfirmation model has become the predominant approach to explaining citizen satisfaction with public services. It posits that citizens compare the performance of a service against their expectations of that service. Satisfaction occurs if the perceived performance meets or exceeds expectations. We provide the first meta‐analysis of the empirical evidence on this relationship, and we find that the model is supported across studies. However, our meta‐analysis also indicates that research design choices affect the results and that the scope of public services examined is not comprehensive. We make best practice recommendations for future research to improve the measurement of citizen satisfaction.

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