Tensile creep behavior of Sn–Ag–Cu–Ni multicomponent lead-free solder alloy

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6630-6636
Journal / PublicationJournal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics
Issue number7
Online published7 Mar 2016
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2016


In the process of electronic packaging, the dissolution of under bump metallizations, such as Cu and Ni, into liquid solder occurs during soldering, which can change the original solder to a multicomponent one. Under the trend of miniaturization, it is quite necessary to evaluate the properties of multicomponent solder with excessive Cu and Ni compositions. In this study, the tensile creep behavior of Sn–3.5Ag–2.0Cu–0.5Ni multicomponent lead-free solder alloy is investigated at three temperatures, i.e., 303, 348 and 393 K. The steady-rate creep rates are obtained in the range of 10−4–10−8 s−1, when the normalized stress, σ/E, is in the range of 10−4–10−3. Based on the Dorn equation, the apparent stress exponent (na), threshold stress (σth), and activation energy of creep (QC) are calculated at the three temperatures. It is found that the Sn–3.5Ag–2.0Cu–0.5Ni solder alloy shows a better creep performance than pure tin and eutectic Sn–3.5Ag solder due to the strengthening effect of Ag3Sn and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMC precipitations. The true stress exponent for creep is identified to be 7, indicating that the creep behave is controlled by the dislocation-pipe diffusion in the tin matrix.