Synergistic toxic effects of zinc pyrithione and copper to three marine species : Implications on setting appropriate water quality criteria

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

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Author(s)

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)616-623
Journal / PublicationMarine Pollution Bulletin
Volume57
Issue number6-12
Online published20 May 2008
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes

Abstract

Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is widely applied in conjunction with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints as a substitute for tributyltin. The combined effects of ZnPT and Cu on marine organisms, however, have not been fully investigated. This study examined the toxicities of ZnPT alone and in combination with Cu to the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, polychaete larvae Hydroides elegans and amphipod Elasmopus rapax. Importantly, ZnPT and Cu resulted in a strong synergistic effect with isobologram interaction parameter λ > 1 for all test species. The combined toxicity of ZnPT and Cu was successfully modelled using the non-parametric response surface and its contour. Such synergistic effects may be partly due to the formation of copper pyrithione. It is, therefore, inadequate to assess the ecological risk of ZnPT to marine organisms solely based on the toxicity data generated from the biocide alone. To better protect precious marine resources, it is advocated to develop appropriate water quality criteria for ZnPT with the consideration of its compelling synergistic effects with Cu at environmentally realistic concentrations. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Research Area(s)

  • Amphipod, Antifouling booster biocide, Combined toxicity, Diatom, Tube worm

Citation Format(s)

Synergistic toxic effects of zinc pyrithione and copper to three marine species : Implications on setting appropriate water quality criteria. / Bao, Vivien W.W.; Leung, Kenneth M.Y.; Kwok, Kevin W.H.; Zhang, Amy Q.; Lui, Gilbert C.S.

In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 57, No. 6-12, 2008, p. 616-623.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review