Statistical Description of Channel Estimation Error in Massive MIMO Systems with Ricean Fading

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

1 Scopus Citations
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  • Pei Liu
  • Qi Zhang
  • Junyuan Wang
  • Dejin Kong
  • Yue Zhang

Related Research Unit(s)


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6227-6231
Journal / PublicationIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number6
Online published4 May 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


This paper studies the channel estimation performance in massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with Ricean fading through considering the relative channel estimation error (RCEE) metric. The closed-form expressions of the probability distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function of RCEE are derived, according to which the PDFs of RCEE with Rayleigh fading and pure line-of-sight (LoS) propagation are obtained as special cases. Through analyzing RCEE, it notes that as the number of base-station antennas becomes unbounded, RCEE approaches a given constant. Moreover, the asymptotic analysis proves that, in high M-regime, the increasing rate of the RCEE scales in the order of √for Rayleigh fading and pure LoS propagation, while the scaling order with general Ricean fading is capped by √M. All the above mentioned results are verified through Monte-Carlo simulations.

Research Area(s)

  • Massive MIMO, Ricean Fading, RCEE, PDF, asymptotic analysis