State-of-Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries via Long Short-Term Memory Network

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journal

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Original languageEnglish
Article number8695733
Pages (from-to)53792-53799
Journal / PublicationIEEE Access
Online published23 Apr 2019
Publication statusPublished - 2019


Accurate state-of-charge (SOC) estimation is critical for driving range prediction of electric vehicles and optimal charge control of batteries. In this paper, a stacked long short-Term memory network is proposed to model the complex dynamics of lithium iron phosphate batteries and infer battery SOC from current, voltage, and temperature measurements. The proposed network is trained and tested using data collected from the dynamic stress test, US06 test, and federal urban driving schedule. The performance on SOC estimation is evaluated regarding tracking accuracy, computation time, robustness against unknown initial states, and compared with results from the model-based filtering approach (unscented Kalman filter). Moreover, different training and testing data sets are constructed to test its robustness against varying loading profiles. The experimental results show that the proposed network well captures the nonlinear correlation between SOC and measurable signals and provides better tracking performance than the unscented Kalman filter. In case of inaccurate initial SOCs, the proposed network presents quick convergence to the true SOC, with root mean square errors within 2% and mean average errors within 1%. Moreover, the estimation time at each time step is sub-millisecond, making it appropriate for real-Time applications.

Research Area(s)

  • lithium iron phosphate batteries, long short-Term memory, recurrent neural network, State-of-charge estimation, unscented Kalman filter