Small-angle neutron scattering characterization of the structure of nanoporous carbons for energy-related applications

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalNot applicablepeer-review

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Author(s)

  • Lilin He
  • Suresh M. Chathoth
  • Yuri B. Melnichenko
  • Volker Presser
  • John McDonough
  • And 1 others
  • Yury Gogotsi

Detail(s)

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)46-54
Journal / PublicationMicroporous and Mesoporous Materials
Volume149
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2012
Externally publishedYes

Abstract

We used small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron contrast variation to study the structure of four nanoporous carbons prepared by thermo-chemical etching of titanium carbide TiC in chlorine at 300, 400, 600, and 800 °C with pore diameters ranging between ∼4 and ∼11 . SANS patterns were obtained from dry samples and samples saturated with deuterium oxide (D2O) in order to delineate origin of the power law scattering in the low Q domain as well as to evaluate pore accessibility for D2O molecules. SANS cross section of all samples was fitted to Debye-Anderson- Brumberger (DAB), DAB-Kirste-Porod models as well as to the Guinier and modified Guinier formulae for cylindrical objects, which allowed for evaluating the radii of gyration as well as the radii and lengths of the pores under cylindrical shape approximation. SANS data from D2O-saturated samples indicate that strong upturn in the low Q limit usually observed in the scattering patterns from microporous carbon powders is due to the scattering from outer surface of the powder particles. Micropores are only partially filled with D2O molecules due to geometrical constraints and or partial hydrophobicity of the carbon matrix. Structural parameters of the dry carbons obtained using SANS are compared with the results of the gas sorption measurements and the values agree for carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) obtained at high chlorination temperatures (>600 °C). For lower chlorination temperatures, pore radii obtained from gas sorption overestimate the actual pore size as calculated from SANS for two reasons: inaccessible small pores are present and the model-dependent fitting based on density functional theory models assumes non-spherical pores, whereas SANS clearly indicates that the pore shape in microporous CDC obtained at low chlorination temperatures is nearly spherical. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Research Area(s)

  • Carbide-derived porous carbon, SANS, Sorption, Structure

Citation Format(s)

Small-angle neutron scattering characterization of the structure of nanoporous carbons for energy-related applications. / He, Lilin; Chathoth, Suresh M.; Melnichenko, Yuri B.; Presser, Volker; McDonough, John; Gogotsi, Yury.

In: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Vol. 149, No. 1, 01.02.2012, p. 46-54.

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journalNot applicablepeer-review