Semi-Supervised Deep Coupled Ensemble Learning with Classification Landmark Exploration

Research output: Journal Publications and Reviews (RGC: 21, 22, 62)21_Publication in refereed journal

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Original languageEnglish
Article number8796363
Pages (from-to)538-550
Journal / PublicationIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Online published13 Aug 2019
Publication statusPublished - 2020


Using an ensemble of neural networks with consistency regularization is effective for improving performance and stability of deep learning, compared to the case of a single network. In this paper, we present a semi-supervised Deep Coupled Ensemble (DCE) model, which contributes to ensemble learning and classification landmark exploration for better locating the final decision boundaries in the learnt latent space. First, multiple complementary consistency regularizations are integrated into our DCE model to enable the ensemble members to learn from each other and themselves, such that training experience from different sources can be shared and utilized during training. Second, in view of the possibility of producing incorrect predictions on a number of difficult instances, we adopt class-wise mean feature matching to explore important unlabeled instances as classification landmarks, on which the model predictions are more reliable. Minimizing the weighted conditional entropy on unlabeled data is able to force the final decision boundaries to move away from important training data points, which facilitates semi-supervised learning. Ensemble members could eventually have similar performance due to consistency regularization, and thus only one of these members is needed during the test stage, such that the efficiency of our model is the same as the non-ensemble case. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our proposed DCE model over existing state-of-the-art semi-supervised learning methods.

Research Area(s)

  • consistency regularization, deep ensemble, landmark learning, Semi-supervised classification