SARS-COV-2/COVID-19 : scenario, epidemiology, adaptive mutations, and environmental factors

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review

11 Scopus Citations
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  • Asma Asghar
  • Hafiz Muhammad Imran
  • Naheed Bano
  • Sadia Maalik
  • Sajida Mushtaq
  • Asim Hussain
  • Lotfi Aleya
  • Hafiz M. N. Iqbal
  • Muhammad Bilal


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)69117-69136
Number of pages20
Journal / PublicationEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number46
Online published10 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022
Externally publishedYes


The coronavirus pandemic of 2019 has already exerted an enormous impact. For over a year, the worldwide pandemic has ravaged the whole globe, with approximately 250 million verified human infection cases and a mortality rate surpassing 4 million. While the genetic makeup of the related pathogen (SARS-CoV-2) was identified, many unknown facets remain a mystery, comprising the virus’s origin and evolutionary trend. There were many rumors that SARS-CoV-2 was human-borne and its evolution was predicted many years ago, but scientific investigation proved them wrong and concluded that bats might be the origin of SARS-CoV-2 and pangolins act as intermediary species to transmit the virus from bats to humans. Airborne droplets were found to be the leading cause of human-to-human transmission of this virus, but later studies showed that contaminated surfaces and other environmental factors are also involved in its transmission. The evolution of different SARS-CoV-2 variants worsens the condition and has become a challenge to overcome this pandemic. The emergence of COVID-19 is still a mystery, and scientists are unable to explain the exact origin of SARS-CoV-2. This review sheds light on the possible origin of SARS-CoV-2, its transmission, and the key factors that worsen the situation.

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2022

Research Area(s)

  • Environmental factors, Epidemiology, Health threat, Origin, SARS-CoV-2, Variants

Citation Format(s)

SARS-COV-2/COVID-19: scenario, epidemiology, adaptive mutations, and environmental factors. / Asghar, Asma; Imran, Hafiz Muhammad; Bano, Naheed et al.
In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research , Vol. 29, No. 46, 10.2022, p. 69117-69136.

Research output: Journal Publications and ReviewsRGC 21 - Publication in refereed journalpeer-review